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24 1917 



806-7-8 Yeon Building, Portland, Oregon 





Volume II ] 

5c a copy— 50c a year 

I Number 1 

Volume one contains four numbers. Volume two will contain twelve numbers, end- 
ing December, 1914. 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II JANUARY 1914 Number 1 


Each year the State Board of Fish and Game Commissioners 
spends from $50,000 to $75,000 in the propagation of various kinds 
of fish in order to stock our streams. One of the leading causes 
for the destruction of fish life is in the pollution of our waters. 
After the eggs are laid and the young fish hatch, during the stage 
before the yolk sac is absorbed, these creatures are very delicate 
and susceptible to disease. Dumping the sewage of cities, the 
waste of mills and factories and filth of all kinds into our pub- 
lic waters is a factor that will completely deplete our streams of 
fish, if it is allowed to continue. 

In Oregon we have a large number of rivers that are of 
great value to the State and to the people as a whole. The value 
of our streams, merely from the recreation standpoint, is large, 
for we are spending more money for that purpose year by year. 
The contamination of public waters is an evil attendant upon the 
growth of cities and the development of the State. The empty- 
ing of sewage into streams is the crudest method of dealing with 
the problem of cleanliness. It does not dispose of the city's filth; 
it merely transfers it from one place to another, making the 
water unfit for use at other points further down stream, destroy- 
ing our fish supply and spreading disease among our people. 
These things are wrong, both morally and legally. 


Some time ago when the city of Silverton was inaugurating 
her new sewer system the city authorities were warned by the 
State Board of Health not to dump the sewage into Silver Creek, 
a mountain stream that runs through the city. The City Council 
paid no attention to the warning. Becently the State Board of 

Page one 


Health enjoined the City of Silverton and on December 24th the 
case was decided in favor of the State by Judge Galloway, of 

This, decision is important from the standpoint of all who 
are interested in outdoor life, and it is far reaching in its effects. 
It will mean that all the towns and cities using creeks and rivers 
as dumping grounds for sewage will have to make some other 
arrangement. This will mean that the towns along the Willam- 
ette, such as Eugene, Albany, Salem, Portland, and every other 
city or town in the State must eventually dispose of their sewage 
in a scientific way, such as by means of septic tank and filter 

No city government has a legal or moral right to dump its 
filth into public waters because a river runs past its doors. In 
the city of Portland, for instance, the people are used to living 
under such conditions. A change in the disposal of sewage will 
have to be made sooner or later, and the sooner such arrange- 
ments are planned for, the easier it will be for tax payers. The 
sewage of a city of 25,000 inhabitants can be disposed of on an 
acre of land. 

In order to save her shellfish industry, the city of Baltimore 
was compelled to dispose of her sewage by modern septic devices. 
It is collected at a disposal plant from a hundred and sixty miles 
of pipe. It passes through settling tanks and the liquid part is 
sprayed over a filter bed of stones. Comparatively pure water 
passes through the settling basins and on into a power house. 
A fall of eighteen feet is used for driving water wheels for gen- 
erating power. The residue is used for filling low land. The 
system is so planned that additions can easily be made so that 
the sewage can be disposed of when the city contains a population 
of 10,000,000 people. 


A very important law governing the Deschutes River was 
passed at the 1911 session of our Legislature. This law provides 
that no sewage, filth, or in fact anything, can be dumped in the 

Page two 


river which makes the water unfit for drinking purposes. The 
passage of such a law before factories are built up along the 
river and before cities grow, shows foresight. Such a law should 
be passed embracing other waters in the State, such as the Uma- 
tilla, John Day, Santiam, McKenzie, Umpqua and Kogue Rivers. 


Some eight or ten years ago a few pairs of Hungarian or European 
partridges were purchased and distributed in eertain sections of the State. 
A few of these birds which were liberated in Marion County, east of Salem, 
have held their own and have increased to some extent. 

The Hungarian partridge, if given a good chance in Oregon, will in- 
crease and make a valuable game bird. It lives largely on insects and weed 
seeds. It is at home in the fields and is more of a field bird than either 
the mountain or the California quail. It is a little larger in size. 

During the past year one hundred and nine pairs of these birds were 
purchased and distributed on different game refuges in Oregon. Every 
effort has been made to protect these birds and give them a fair chance 
to increase. 

Several reports have come in from the country around Salem to the 
effect that the birds liberated in this section have increased quite rapidly. 

Mr. C. A. Park, of Salem, reports the finding of a nest of Hungarian 
partridges on his place where they were liberated, with eighteen eggs, 
fifteen of which hatched. 

It is desired that reports be sent in regarding nesting habits, distribu- 
tion and abundance of these birds. 

Following is the number of Hungarian partridges distributed in 
March, 1913: * . 

Yoncalla, Douglas County . 24 

Ashland, Jackson County 24 

Rogue River, Jackson County 24 

Eugene, Lane County 48 

Winant, • Lincoln County 4 

Salem, Marion County 70 

Suver, Polk County 12 

Yamhill, Yamhill County 12 


Page three 



With Some Descriptions of the Country, Fish and Fishing— Part 2 


Tillamook, Trask and Wilson Rivers, 

About fifteen miles south of Nehalem one arrives by the P. R. 
& N. at Garibaldi, on the north entrance of Tillamook Bay — a 
pleasant place to stay and rather preferable to Tillamook City for 
reaching the Miami, a small stream falling into the east side of 
this bay. The situation of Garibaldi is very charming, the views 
of the bay, ocean and mountains quite unsurpassed. Good ac- 
commodations are found here or at Bay City, on the east shore of 
the bay, which is an important town on the railroad. From Bay 
City or Tillamook, Kilchis River is accessible. 

Tillamook, terminus of the line, is also the objective point 
of two important roads from the Willamette, one of which, from 
Forest Grove, follows the valley of Gales Creek. This is a very 
pleasant stream and good fishing, and at Gales, ten miles west of 
Forest Grove, are good quarters for a stay. Arriving at the 
summit, where there is a good mountain tavern, one strikes the 
waters of the famous Wilson River near its head, and the road to 
Tillamook follows its increasing tide westward. This river and 
the Trask are famous for many years as the greatest fishing 
streams of northwestern Oregon. They are of about equal volume, 
the Trask having a shorter but broader watershed. Both are 
clear, rapid, powerful rivers — all that trout rivers par excellence 
should be. They flow into Tillamook Bay at its southeast corner, 
near Tillamook City, which is a good base for reaching their lower 
waters, as well as the Tillamook River, which comes directly from 
the south and enters the southern end of the bay. Tillamook has 
not been so much fished as the two larger rivers and is not so 

Fag-e four 


well known ; but in any other locality, if more accessible, would 
be a famous fishing stream. 

Directly east from Tillamook City sixteen miles is Trask post- 
office, the meeting place of the north and south forks of the 
Trask River. The stage road between Tillamook and Yamhill 
station on the Southern Pacific Railroad leaves the Trask here 
and ascends the mountain ridge which divides the two rivers. At 
this point is the Toll House, a famous stopping place and haunt of 
fishermen, from which the waters of either branch and the main 
river are easily reached by roads. The north fork of Trask is 
little settled, and there is possibly better fishing, though either 
branch is prime in season, and remarkably good late in the summer 
and fall. Accommodations may be had at several comfortable 
farms on the road, and the fishing is about as good down to within 
five miles of Tillamook City as farther up in the mountains. I" 
several visits to Trask I have always been fortunate ; twice, late 
in the summer or early fall, especially so. The sea trout take the 
fly on cloudy mornings with great eagerness, and run two pounds 
and upward. 

The ride over the mountains, on either the Trask or Wilson 
road takes the traveler through some of our most glorious forests, 
the magnificent larches rising a hundred feet, like mighty col- 
umns, to the first limb. On the eastern end of the Trask road, at 
Fairdale, there is a pleasant mountain tavern and good fishing 
on the upper waters of the north Yamhill. 

There are plenty of ruffed grouse and blue grouse and quail 
along the roads from the Willamette to Tillamook. The road from 
Fairdale to the forks of Trask River is a delightful tramp of less 
than twenty miles, with the comfortable Toll House for a stopping 
place. The walk over these mountains and through these prim- 
eval forests, with views incomparable of blue, endless ranges, 
far-off snow peaks and delightful valleys far below, is a memory 
that will remain with one perhaps more vividly than that of the 
bright river and the basketful of trout. 

Two fine north coast streams are Elk Creek, well known to 

Pajre five 


Seaside visitors, and the famous Nekanakum. The latter is prob- 
ably more fished than any other stream in the Pacific States. 
Thousands of visitors fish its waters every summer, and the nu- 
merous and persistent anglers of Seaside are at it all winter long 
with spoons and salmon eggs. It is a wonder there are any trout 
left in it, and the angler in midsummer is apt to believe there are 
none. I have tramped miles in an August day, half way from its 
source to its outlet, and fished faithfully without a rise from a 
legal fish; yet a week later, not two miles above Seaside House, 
have had good sport. There is no more beautiful stream than 
this, methinks. To one who knows the Nekanakum well, and loves 
it, as all who know it must, the catching of a great creel full is 
not altogether necessary to an enjoyable day on its waters. 

The fish of this river are fully wise. There are large, deep 
pools, sometimes several hundred yards long, in which the fish 
congregate, and from which at most times no lure will entice 
them. On these very pools — given a cloudy, breezy day — big 
trout will occasionally come to the fly like hungry wolves. Pos- 
sibly the Nekanakum produces more fish in the aggregate than 
any stream of similar size, to the angler, in this state. It is of all 
others the stream to test the skill and patience of the finished 
sportsman, and there's a triumph in taking a dozen good trout 
from its waters that rarely comes to an angler elsewhere, for he 
knows he has earned them dearly. 

Eight miles south of Seaside (the road following Nekanakum 
four miles), across a ridge running east from Tillamook Head, 
is Elk Creek, with a couple of hotels, open summer and winter. 
This stream is much less fished than Nekanakum, and about half 
the size. It furnishes good sport, and is a delightful region, 
its sea beach close at hand being studded with magnificent rocky 
pinnacles, and the sandy shore clean and hard and delightful. 
There is good sea fishing from these rocks. The road to Elk 
Creek is fine for auto, wagon, saddle horse or footman, and the 
walk is perhaps the pleasantest way of all to travel thither. 

Pag-e six 



Facts That Show the Value of This Bird From an 
Economic Standpoint. 

By C. F. HODGE. 

The bobwhite is a splendid combination insect trap, weed- 
killer and game bird, and as a booster proposition his cheer- 
ful whistle is also unexcelled. At the former price of 
five or six dollars a dozen the United States Department of 
Agriculture rated the rearing of this quail as more profitable 
than any other line of poultry; and the price for breeding stock 
last year reached twenty five dollars a dozen, with supply far be- 
low demand. 

The high value placed on the bobwhite is due to a combi- 
nation of good points. Many sportsmen place it at the head of 
the list for upland birds in the matter of pure sport. They are 
easily propagated, very prolific, and can be increased rapidly 
under protection. Finally, as the foods of this species become 
generally understood, the weight of evidence for service ren- 
dered must place the bobwhite up to the natural limits of its 
insect and weed seed food supply, on every farm and in every 
garden within its possible range. 

The annual damage to agriculture by weeds is estimated at 
nearly $500,000,000. Nearly 53 per cent of the quail's food is 
weed seeds, and of the 129 weeds it is known to destroy, many 
are the worst we have — among them beggar's ticks, bindweed, 
Canada thistle, burdock, curled dock, wild mustard, ragweed, 
pigweed, lamb's quarters, parsley, sorrel and witch grass. In 
a single day's ration a bobwhite has been found to eat amounts 
of weed seeds as follows: 

Wild mustard 2,500 Peppergrass . . . .• 2,400 

Burdock 600 Pigweed 12,000 

Curled dock 4,175 Plantain 12,500 

Dodder 1,560 Babbit 's foot clover 30,000 

Evening primrose 10,000 ■ Smartweed 2,250 

Lambs ' quarters 15,000 White vervain 18,750 

Pag-e seven 




Insects lay a yearly tax on American agriculture recently 
estimated at $1,049,500,000. The list of 135 different insects 
which the bobwhite has been found to eat includes many of 
our most destructive pests. The bird is so large in comparison 
with many of our insect-eating birds that the quantities taken 
are also interesting. The following are among the records : 

Male Bobwhite, that Hatched Fifteen out of Sixteen Eg-gs 

Two tablespoonsful of chinch bugs, from a single crop ; 5,000 
aphids at a meal; 1,350 house and stable flies in a day; 1,283 
rose slugs in a day; 1,532 miscellaneous insects, about 1,000 of 
them grasshoppers, weight nearly one ounce, the daily ration of 
a laying hen; 568 mosquitoes in three hours. For the year a 
bobwhite has, on the average, to his credit about five pounds 
of insects, over 65,000, and 5,123,000, or nearly ten pounds of 
weed seeds. 

Anyone can estimate for himself what such a service might 

Fagre eight 




be worth to his garden, orchard or fields. It would seem from 
the above that the conclusion of Mrs. Nice, who made many of 
the above determinations, is fully warranted: "Bobwhites, if 
we only had enough of them, ought to save us over half of our 
weed damage and half of our billion dollar insect tax." 

How can we have enough of the birds, then, is the question. 
The bobwhite has been successfully introduced into Oregon and 
to all appearances thrives exceptionally well in many parts of 
the State. All the birds the writer has seen have been large, 
vigorous specimens. The reason they have not increased much 
faster must be that natural enemies are numerous. The first 
law in game bird protection the world over is, always and every- 

Friends — Bobwhite Whistling- 

Page nine 


where, extermination or control of vermin. Here, then, is the 
crucial point at which we should attack the problem of increas- 
ing Oregon bobwhite quail. 

In the older states the house cat is the arch enemy of this 
species, and its unceasing depredations, by night and by day, in 
season and out, go further than any other one agency to account 
for its extermination over the wide areas of its former range. 
Rats, skunks and weasels, and certain hawks and owls are 
enemies that must be reckoned with, and, quite possibly, coyotes 
and bobcats. The Fish and Game Commission is especially de- 
sirous of securing evidence and complete data as to enemies of 
the bobwhite in different parts of the State. Will anyone who 
has made any observations along this line please send in the re- 
ports to the Oregon Sportsman? 

The Commission also wishes to know all the points in Ore- 
gon where the bobwhite is abundant, and also any localities, 
adapted to it, where the bird does not exist. It is easy to trap 
the birds, when they can be shipped to stock covers where they 
are likely to thrive, and where local sportsmen can be depended 
to exterminate vermin and look after them most effectively. 
An active, united campaign for the protection, increase and dis- 
tribution of the bobwhite in Oregon is certain to be of great 
benefit to the agricultural interests of the people, and as soon 
as they are sufficiently numerous they will add greatly to our 
permanent game resources. 


There are many requests for bobwhite quail in different parts of the 
state. A number of efforts have been made to purchase these birds from 
other parts of the country, but they have been unsuccessful in some cases 
on account of disease, and in other places on account of strict laws against 

Three varieties of quail are found in Oregon: the plumed or mountain 
quail, the California or valley quail, sometimes called the little blue quail, 
and the bobwhite quail, which was formerly imported from the East. The 
mountain quail is fairly abundant in the mountainous sections throughout 
the state. The California quail is found through southern and eastern 
Oregon, but is not a native of the Willamette Valley. The bobwhite quail 

Page ten 


is quite abundant in certain sections of the Willamette Valley and is in- 
creasing and spreading. It is also found in some parts of eastern Oregon, 
but not in southern Oregon. 

During the winter of 1912 and 1913 two hundred and twenty-two Cali- 
fornia quail were trapped and released on the various refuges in the Willam- 
ette Valley. In future continued effort will be made to trap birds in the 
winter where they are abundant and turn them out in other sections of the 
state where such varieties are not found. 

The Game Department is very anxious to get in touch with people who 
can trap some of these birds in sections where they are fairly abundant, 
so as to liberate them in other parts of the state. 

Following is the number of California quail distributed during the 
past year: 

Marion County 120 

Yamhill County 48 

Benton County 28 

Lane County 24 

Umatilla County 2 



Up to January first 1451 trappers' licenses were issued by the State 
Board of Fish and Game Commissioners for the trapping season which ends 
February 28, showing that trapping is one of the important industries of 
the State. 

The last session of the Legislature passed a law protecting otter, mink, 
fisher, martin and muskrat, making a closed season during the time the 
fur is not prime, as well as providing regulations governing trapping which 
gives the licensed trapper needed protection, such as making it unlawful to 
disturb traps, etc. This law also provides that the trapper must furnish 
the State Board of Fish and Game Commissioners with a sworn statement 
of their fur catch at the end of each trapping season. The object of this 
report being to determine the value of the furbearers to the people of the 
State and the best means of conserving this important industry. It is not 
necessary to have a trapper's license to trap predatory furbearers such as 
cougar, bobcat and coyote. 

For the benefit of trappers the Oregon Sportsman is publishing market 
quotations on such furbearing animals as may be found in Oregon. These 
are based on a general average of the. quotations in the fur markets of the 
United States. 

Market tendencies during the season thus far has been generally down- 

Pag-e eleven 


ward. This decline in prices has been apparent since about last July first, 
but has become more marked since the opening of the present trapping 
season in November. Mink, muskrat and skunk values have suffered most, 
while raccoon, martin, lynx and otter, and in fact fur prices generally are 

It is difficult to forecast the market for January. Much will depend 
on the offerings during the January sales, also to some extent on weather 
conditions. Extreme cold weather would mean a smaller catch and, at the 
same time, stimulate sales of manufactured furs. 

Following are quotations on No. 1 furs: 

Large Medium Small 

Mink (average color) $ 5.50 $ 3.50 $ 2.50 

Extra dark mink worth 50c to $2 above 

brown or average color. 

Otter 17.50 11 .00 7.00 

Skunk (narrow stripe) 2.25 

Civit cat 65 .45 ' .25 

Muskrat 40 .33 .22 

Bear (black) 20.00 15.00 10.00 

Bear (brown) 15.00 12.00 9.00 

Lynx ' 17.00 12.00 9.00 

Bobcat 4.00 2.75 1.75 

Martin 15.00 10.00 7.50 

Fisher 25.00 17.00 12.50 

Timber wolves 4.00 3.00 2.00 

Coyote 4.00 2.75 1.75 

Cougar 7.00 4.00 2.50 

House cat (black) 30 .20 .15 

House cat( colors) 10 .05 .05 

Weasels 1.00 .75 .50 

Badger 2.00 1.50 1.00 


Sunset on January 15th will mark the close of the duck and goose 
season in Oregon and Washington under the Federal laws. 

The present season has been an average one in the numbers of ducks 
killed. In places good bags have been the rule. 

All hunters should join in helping to see that the laws are observed 
during the closed season and exercise their influence toward inducing their 
friends and neighbors to do likewise. 

Page twelve 


Warning Against Shipping Game By Mail 

Regulations Issued by Postmaster General Will be Important 
Factor Against Game Violations. 

Persons are hereby warned against the use of the mail in shipping any 
game or hides unlawful to possess or handle, under the state fish and 
game laws. 

Office of the Postmaster General 
Washington, Dec. 23, 1913. 

Order No. 7734. 

The postal laws and regulations, edition of 1913, are amended by the 
addition of the following as Section 477%: 

Sec. 477 i/o. Postmasters shall not accept for mailing any parcel con- 
taining the dead bodies, or parts thereof, of any wild animals or birds which 
have been killed or are offered for shipment in violation of the laws of the 
State, Territory or District in which the same were killed or offered for 
shipment. Provided, however, that the foregoing shall not be construed to 
prevent the acceptance for mailing of any dead animals or birds killed dur- 
ing the season when the same may be lawfully captured, and the export of 
which is not prohibited by the law of the State, Territory or District in 
which the same are captured or killed. 

(2) Parcels containing the dead bodies of any game animals, or parts 
thereof, including furs, skins, skulls, or meat, or of any game or wild birds, 
or parts thereof, including skins, or any plumage, may be admitted to the 
mails only when plainly marked on the outside to show the actual nature of 
the contents and the name and address of the sender or shipper: Provided, 
however, that no parcel containing fresh game in any form may be accepted 
for transmission beyond the second zone. (See Sec. 475.) 

(3) Postmasters desiring additional information on this subject should 
address the Third Assistant Postmaster General, Division of Classification. 

(Note— Sections 242, 243 and 244, Act of March 4, 1909, 35 Stat., 
1137, make it unlawful to ship in interstate commerce the dead bodies, or 
parts thereof, of any game animals or wild birds which have been killed 
or shipped in violation of the laws of the State, Territory or District in 
which the same were killed, or from which they were shipped.) 

A. S. BUELESON, Postmaster General. 

Pagfe thirteen 

T H E 





The Chinese pheasants liberated 
on the North Powder Kefuge have 
increased rapidly. A. B. Davis re- 
ports that he frequently sees flocks 
of these birds in his fields. Mr. 
West, who is superintendent of the 
Hutchinson property, gives a sim- 
ilar report. Prairie chickens have 
also increased in number since the 
formation of State game refuges in 
that part of the country. 


Mr. James Mulkey, of Pleasant 
Valley, trapped a fine black bear 
at the foot of Alsea Mountain, 
about five miles west of Philomath. 
This bear weighed two hundred 
pounds dressed, and was very fat. 
It was bought by one of the meat 
markets in Corvallis and sold for 
twenty-five cents a pound. Accord- 
ing to reports there are quite a 
number of bears in this locality. 
This was the second killed by Mr. 
Mulkey this winter. 


Since the illegal chasing of deer 
with dogs has decreased in the 
Estacada country, deer have in- 
creased rapidly. A big effort is 
being made this winter by local 
hunters to kill off wolves, cougars 
and other predatory animals as an 

additional protection to deer. 
* * * 

With all the Chinese pheasant 
shooting that was done in this lo- 

cality during the open season, these 
birds do not seem to be depleted 
to any great extent. With a fa- 
vorable winter and spring there 
will be about as many next season 
as there was this. 

* * M 

Fishing has been very good in 
the Clackamas Kiver below Eiver 
Mill for the past three weeks. The 
fish caught are salmon, steelheads, 
white fish, rainbow trout, and once 
in a while a Dolly Varden and Cut- 
throat trout. 


Spoon fishing for silversides has 
been good at Seaside. Good aver- 
ages catches were made. Among 
the successful fishermen lately were 
Mr. Bushong, who caught seven of 
the gamey fish with a casting rod. 
Bert Godfrey caught six, C. W. 
Loughery four and Louis Henry 


Trapping is reported as especially 
good this winter. Mr. Kelly, from 
Lava Lake, has out two hundred 
traps. Up to December 1st he 
caught twenty marten, two otter 
and three mink. The skins were 
large and unusually good. 


L. B. Daugherty, of Yoncalla, 
while visiting his traps about ten 
miles west of Yoncalla one morn- 
ing discovered he had caught a 

Page fourteen 




cougar. The trap had a large fir 
bush tied to it and the cougar had 
dragged the bush to a large cliff 
and had crawled under the rocks. 
Mr. Daugherty pulled on the bunch 
of brush several times and finally 
the cougar came out with a rush 
and with his fore paw slashed 
Daugherty 's arm the entire length. 
Fortunately, he did not get a good 
hold. One of the other men in 
the party shot the cat with his 
.22 rifle. 

Charles Durgin, of Eoseburg, 
caught a large wolf in one of his 
traps a short time ago by making 
a " blind set" in a trail where it 
passed around a ledge of rock. 
* * # 

Quite a number of white tailed 
deer have been seen in the vicinity 
of Eoseburg lately. They are quite 
different from the blacktailed deer 
and are very similar to the Vir- 
ginia whitetail. 


Forest Eanger Edgar W. Don- 
nelly, of the Ocheco National For- 
est, while on a business trip to 
Burns in the middle of December, 
told of seeing sixteen large buck 
deer near the head waters of Silver 
Creek. He says the snow at the 
time was from six to twelve inches 
in depth and that the deer are 
still well up in the mountains. 
# * * 

During the month of November 
six trappers caught 3060 muskrats 

on the Malheur Lake Reserva- 
tion. The Department of Agri- 
culture regulates the trapping of 
furbearing animals on the bird 
reservations and limits the number 
of trapping permits, with the result 
that the fur product of these pre- 
serves is rapidly increasing from 
year to year. 

Mr. C. E. Tullock, of Berckley, 
reports having seen in the neigh- 
b rhood of one thousand antelope 
near Desert Lake, west of Catlow 
Valley, on a recent trip through 
that section. 


George Grigsby and a party of 
friends, of Central Point, were out 
on a trapping trip the middle of 
last month, and on December 14th 
they found a five and a six-point 
buck that had been fighting. The 
animals had their horns locked. The 
six-point buck was dead. The men 
separated the two deer and the 
five-point, when free, took to the 

* * * 

Chinese pheasants were quite 
plentiful in the Eogue Eiver Val- 
ley this season, a noticeable in- 
crease over last year. 

* * * 

The Hungarian partridges liber- 
ated this season in Jackson County 
are doing very well. One mother 
partridge was seen with eighteen 
young, two with fourteen and three 
with six. 

Pag-e fifteen 





The Hungarian partridges "which 
have been liberated for the past 
two seasons on the Capital Game 
Refuge about the city of Salem, 
have increased rapidly. Flocks of 
these birds are seen daily along the 
roads east and southeast of the 


Henry Bettman, musical director 
at the Orpheum Theatre is a duck 
hunter and what might be called a 
real sportsman. Henry shoots ducks 
down the river and in order to get 
to his lake for a Sunday morning 
shoot, it is necessary for him to 
leave after the show Saturday night. 
He gets to his lake just about the 
official time to start shooting, he 
shoots a duck and starts back so as 
to be at the theatre in time for the 
overture at the matinee. Mr. Bett- 
man says it 's not the Duck he goes 
for but the recreation. We are sure 
he gets the recreation all right. 


A large number of Chinese pheas- 
ants were killed during the open 
season throughout this county. The 
male birds seemed quite scarce by 
November 1st, yet many were wily 
enough to escape hunters by flush- 
ing far out of range or by hiding 
in the woods. Since the shooting 
season closed the cocks are much 
bolder and they are frequently seen 

in small flocks. 

* * * 

George Russell and O. B. Parker 

recently saw a flock of eleven 
Chinese pheasants fly up into the 
trees of an old orchard. Seven 
birds lit in one tree and four in 
another. In all there were seven 
cocks and four hens, showing that 
in this band a good number of 
males survived the hunting season. 


The band of elk on the head of 
the Grande Ronde River shows quite 
an increase in number during the 
past two years. When last counted 
there was a total of ninety-eight 
in this locality. Mr. Christman re- 
ports that the band on Dutch Flat 
has doubled in two years. Those 
along the Minam River and Cather- 
ine Meadows are doing nicely. They 
have not been troubled by hunters 
during the last year as the wardens 
and forest rangers are watching 
everyone that goes into that country. 


Mr. C. H. Evans reports that 
there has been a noticeable increase 
of prairie chickens in his part of 
the county during the past two or 
three years. The farmers and land 
owners have taken a great interest 
in bird protection since the Chinese 
pheasants were sent from the State 
game farm. 


Cecil Parker, of McMinnville, re- 
cently counted fifty-three bobwhite 
quail in one flock on the J. A. 
Derby place, about a quarter of a 
mile from the citv limits. 

Page sixteen 

MAR 24 1917 








By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, State Game Warden, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II ] 

5c a copy— 50c a year 

[ Number 2 

Volume one contains four numbers. Volume two will contain twelve numbers, end- 
ing December, 1914. 


The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II FEBRUARY 1914 Number 2 


FOR 1913 

Amount on hand January 1st, 1913 $ 60,777.62 

Income from Sportsmen's Licenses 

during 1913 $108,800.00 

Income from Fines and Other Sources. . . . 8,634.82 

Total Income for 1913 117,434.82 

Cash on hand, Game Protection Fund for 1913 $178,212.44 

Amount expended by Fish and Game Commission from 

January 1st, 1913, to January 1st, 1914 136,474.92 

Balance on hand January 1st, 1914 $ 41,737.52 

We print in this issue an itemized account of the hunters* 
and anglers' licenses paid in according to the various counties of 
the state during the past year. Also a summary of the number 
of trout and other game fish distributed in the various counties, 
an account of game birds liberated, a recapitulation of arrests and 
convictions for violation of the game laws, and a summary of dis- 
bursements from the Game Protection Fund from January 1st, 
1913, to January 1st, 1914. 

The Sportsmen Pay the Bills. 

Occasionally we hear the remark that the Fish and Game 
Commission is spending too much of the taxpayers' money in the 
protection and propagation of game. The money in the Game 
Protection Fund, which is spent in the employment of from 
forty to fifty game wardens, the purchase and the distribution 
of game birds, animals and game fish, is derived from the hunt- 
ers' and anglers' licenses. Not one penny was appropriated for 
game protection at the last session of the legislature. The Game 

Pag* one 


Protection Fund comes from the pockets of the man who hunts 
and angles. It should be carefully spent to advance the cause 
for which it is collected. 

It must be borne in mind that a good portion of the total ex- 
penditures from the Game Protection Fund for the year 1913 was 
incurred by the purchase of the fish distribution car ; the property 
upon which the Bonneville Hatchery is located, and other perma- 
nent improvements and equipment at the hatcheries and the State 
Game Farm. 

What Has Been Accomplished. 

There have been more real results in game protection and 
preservation during the year 1913 than in any other year in the 
history of the state. There have been active game protective 
associations organized which are composed of farmers, business 
men and others who are actively engaged in planting fish in 
the streams, putting game birds in the fields and killing cougar, 
wolves, bobcats and other predatory animals, which are the 
greatest enemies of game. 

There has been an active campaign carried on among the 
children of our public schools, showing them the economic value 
of our wild birds and animals, especially about the farm. 

Game protection and game preservation is an educational 
and economic question. The Fish and Game Commission cannot 
hire enough game wardens to prevent game law violations. There 
must be a more general interest in game protection. 

There have been over 8,000,000 fingerling game fish planted 
in the various streams and lakes in the state. The most impor- 
tant part of this work has been the stocking of a large number 
of fine mountain lakes in the high Cascades which heretofore 
have contained no fish. As a result, in a few years these lakes 
will teem with trout. Our great mountain range will be a recre- 
ation ground for our people, more important than any other sim- 
ilar territory in the United States. 

Over three thousand game birds were liberated in the vari- 
ous parts of the state during the past year for stocking purposes. 

Fag** two 


Also an additional herd of fifteen elk were brought into Oregon 
and placed on the reserve in Wallowa County. 

Food Value of Our Game. 

What does the game of this state amount to purely from the 
meat standpoint? Approximately 9,000 deer were killed in Ore- 
gon during the past year. This meat is worth about sixteen cents 
per pound, whether it is on the table of the farmer, the moun- 
taineer or the merchant. There were approximately 150,000 ducks 
and about 45,000 Chinese pheasants killed during the past season. 
From a food standpoint, a mallard or a pheasant is worth about 
seventy-five cents. A pound of trout or other game fish 
is worth twelve cents from the meat standpoint. When we con- 
sider the approximate weight of the game fish (not including 
salmon and commercial fish) which are caught by the people of 
this state each year, and, in addition to the above, when we con- 
sider the numbers of grouse, quail, geese, shore birds, and also 
the number of fur-bearing animals that are taken, we shall find 
that a low estimate of these resources is $900,000 a year in the 
pockets of our people. 

Value of Wild Birds to the Farmer. 

The fact is often overlooked that our game birds, animals 
and game fish have been and are today the most important factor 
in the development of our state. The rifle has been almost as 
important as the ax and the plow. At the time it was hardest for 
a homesteader to make a living, the wild game was his main- 
stay. This is even the case today in some parts of our state. Our 
game has a large food value. 

The work of the Fish and Game Commission embraces the 
protection of song and insect-eating birds, which are of economic 
importance to the farmer, gardener, orchardist and the timber- 
man. These song and insect-eating birds work more in conjunc- 
tion with man than any other creatures of the outdoor. They 
police the earth and air, and keep the insect pests in check. 
Larks, wrens and thrushes search the ground for grubs and in- 

Pagr« three 


sects; the food of the meadowlark consists of seventy-five per 
cent of injurious insects and twelve per cent of weed seed ; spar- 
rows and finches eat a large amount of weed seed. Prof. F. E. L. 
Beal showed by the examination of the stomachs of tree sparrows 
that they ate a quarter of an ounce of weed seed daily. In a 
state the size of Iowa, tree sparrows alone consumed more than 
800 tons of weed seed annually. This, with the work of other 
weed seed-eating birds, saves the farmer a large amount of labor. 
Nuthatches and chickadees scan every part of the trunks and 
limbs of the trees for insect eggs. Harmful beetles in our great 
Oregon forests are yearly destroying a large amount of timber. 
These wild birds are the only natural check to prevent this. In 
a day's time a chickadee has been known to eat hundreds of in- 
sect eggs and worms that are harmful to trees and vegetables. 
Warblers and vireos hunt the leaves and buds for moths and 
millers. Flycatchers, swallows and nighthawks are busy day and 
night destroying the flies about the farm that annoy man and 
beast. Many of our hawks and owls are working quietly day and 
night catching mice, moles, gophers and squirrels. 

Is It Not a Good Investment. 

Fishing and hunting is a business proposition to the farmer, 
the fruit grower, the timberman and every other land owner in 
the state. Our people need outdoor life and recreation. As an 
outdoor state, Oregon is becoming more and more a drawing 
card for a desirable class of tourists who have money to spend 
and money to invest. They come for enjoyment. They angle in 
our mountain streams. They see our wonderful forests of fir and 
pine. They cross our valleys and see our fertile farms. They 
come to play — they return to stay. 

The money spent by tourists and others in railroad fares, 
hotel accommodations, employment of guides, purchase of equip- 
ment and supplies and other items, amounts to a large sum every 
year — money that goes directly into the pockets of our citizens. 

From an economic and business standpoint, to say nothing 
of their aesthetic value, the game and other wild creatures of 

Pftgpe four 


the state are worth over $5,000,000 annually to us. This is not 
placing a high estimate on these resources. Who will say that 
it is not a business proposition to expend two per cent a year in 
such an investment ? That is what the Fish and Game Commission 
of the State of Oregon has done during the year 1913. 


YEAR 1913. 

Quail and 


Pheasants Partridges 

Baker ' 14 

Benton 44 48 

Coos 24 

Crook 48 

Curry 36 

Douglas 63 108 

Gilliam \1 

Harney 156 

Hood River 132 

Jackson 144 60 

Josephine 147 60 

Klamath 178 

Lake 84 

Lane 89 84 

Lincoln 32 14 

Marion 121 192 

Morrow 72 

Multnomah 59 16 

Umatilla 280 8 

Union 206 

Wallowa 270 

Wasco 86 

Washington 2 

Yamhill 118 

Total 2,363 708 

Total game birds liberated 3,071 

Fag-e five 



With Some Descriptions of the Country, Fish and Fishing— Part 3 



Twenty miles west of Portland is the well-known (and well- 
fished) Scappoose, with its north and south forks. One can get 
enough of Scappoose in a day, leaving town on the 8 A. M. train 
and returning at 10 P. M. If one wants the evening and morn- 
ing fishing, as on several streams west, an afternoon train will 
take one to villages where good accommodations can be had, and 
thus Milton, Tide Creek and Goble Creek can be fished. These 
streams are not by any means troutless, but one earns all he gets 
in any of them. At times, too, there is really good fishing. I 
saw the best basket of trout from Scappoose in the spring of 
1911 that I ever saw taken there, and I have caught a thousand 
trout from the north fork, but many years ago. 

Beaver, half way from Portland to the sea, is next, and little 
visited. Its lower course is through the great marsh, and yields 
no trout except sea trout by bait fishing. One should take a team 
at Quincy and drive (or be driven) five miles or more up from 
the railroad and then Beaver is worth the trouble. It is a long 
stream, and even back of Rainier, many miles east of Quincy, is 
good fishing. One can get a pretty good day's fishing by arrang- 
ing beforehand for a team to receive one at Quincy from the 
morning train from Portland, drive at once up the river and have 
the same team take one back to the station at 8 P. M. to return 
to town that night. The same may be done at Clatskanie, but as 
the lower Clatskanie is over-fished, it is usually better to go 
there on an evening train, staying at a comfortable hotel and 
making an early start for ten miles up river. The Clatskanie is 
a fine, big stream and a fair fishing river. In Fall and Winter 
its lower waters are good fishing for the Winter trout, and one 

Pag-e six 


can have enough of that sluggish sport by taking the morning 
train west and returning the same night. 

There has been good fishing at Westport, on Plympton Creek, 
in the past. It is rather a small stream but very pleasant fish- 
ing, and if Dave West's hotel were "running" I should chance it 
very often there; but for some years the accommodations have 
not been attractive and the stream is too far away for a single 
day's outing. 

Farther west again, at Knappa, is a lovely stream, the Tillas- 
qua, ignorantly known as "Big Creek" — a name which all honest 
anglers should discourage, preferring the good old Indian title. 

Go down on an evening train, arriving at Knappa about 9 :30, 
and walk up through the darkness or by the lantern light to the 
hotel on the hill. It is a unique old place, its. like nowhere else 
on the river, standing on a beautiful little peninsula overlooking 
the broad Columbia and its green, wooded islands, and the fine 
mountains on Washington shore. You will sleep there in a 
silence that will almost make your ears ache, in a hotel that once 
was populous but now rarely has a half dozen guests, always 
anglers. An early breakfast — not too luxurious — and then tramp 
either by the county road or a trail south over the ridge a 
couple of miles, and you strike Tillasqua at a point where its 
whirling flood swings around a semi-circle below the road. You 
will probably insist on beginning then and there, and that will 
be right, too ; but I like to go a couple of miles farther up the 
canyon and then fish down. In my few visits to Tillasqua I have 
never been disappointed, though never have made any great 
catches. It is a fine stream for winter fishing for steelheads. 
The garden of the old hotel is a delight, and the landlord usually 
allows his patrons to bring home an armful of old-fashioned 
flowers, as welcome to "the folks" as a basketful of trout. 

(Note: Since the above was written things are changed 
sadly for the worse on the Tillasqua. In the spring of 1912, 
certain fishermen passing through fields and farms along the 

Pag-e seven 


lower river threw fences down and left gates open, and stock 
strayed from field to field, doing great damage. All that water 
is now posted against fishermen, a single Portland angler, Mr. H. 
Eldridge, being welcome to fish there as he has done for many 
years; and this favor is the result of consideration and regard 
for the rights of others on his part.) 

A great tract of forest on the mountains bordering this 
river is being cut off by a company which also forbids any fish- 
ing on its lands. This prohibition is also due to the recklessness 
of men who light fires promiscuously and leave them without 
taking the trouble to extinguish them, thus endangering enormous 

So here is a fine stream which we have lost through the 
criminal, wanton disregard of the rights of others! Such results 
are sure to follow in similar cases elsewhere ; and the man who so 
violates his privilege of fishing our streams is not only an enemy 
and nuisance to the farmer and lumberman, but to all the guild of 
honest fishermen. 


Clatsop is exceptionally blessed with fine trout streams. 
Plympton Creek and Tillasqua, described above, are within that 
county. The Tillasqua, whose lower course has been covered 
by previous notes, rises in a group of very high and noble moun- 
tains twenty miles southeast of Astoria, and we followed its 
waters from the mouth of the "canyon" to Knappa, where it 
falls into the Columbia. It must be that there is fishing in the 
long canyon which runs for several miles through the mountains, 
but I have not gone far in the gorge, always finding more inviting 
fishing in the waters below it. There is a sense of imprisonment 
and peril in fishing a deep gorge where the steep walls of rock 
rise forbiddingly, and often one unacquainted with such a gorge 
is in more than imaginary risk. The little beach of gravel you 
have been following may terminate at the food of a rampart of 

Pagre eigfht 


vertical rock which can be surmounted only by a long detour 
to the rear, or passed by swimming the black depths of the stream 
at its base. This is the character of the canyon of Tillasqua and 
many other streams. Such perilous and forbidding waters offer 
the persecuted trout secure retreats and will help to preserve the 
stock for ages to come. 

Dr. Francis Cauthorn has told me of first-class fishing he has 
enjoyed in the upper waters of Tillasqua above the canyon. 

In the mountain highlands at its head, heavily forested with 
the most magnificent timber, rise important tributaries of Ne- 
halem, falling south, and Young's River and Klaskanine, flowing 
northwest into Young's Bay below Astoria. These two rivers 
are reached most conveniently by boat from Astoria, or by a 
road from Astoria to Olney. They are little fished, apparently, 
and afford excellent sport. The state maintains a hatchery on 
Klaskanine, and reports from there, Spring of 1913, tell of large 
numbers of giant cut- throat trout taken there. 

Saddle Mountain, the noblest mass of the Coast Range, is 
the western buttress of this mountain group. Lewis and Clark's 
River rises at its base and flows north, a few miles east of the 
railroad from Astoria to Seaside, falling into the western side of 
Young's Bay. This fine river is little fished because of the dif- 
ficulty in reaching its upper waters. It can be more conveniently 
reached by boat from Astoria. Occasional anglers go in by a trail 
which starts east from Wohana Station on the A. & C. For a 
mile a fair road, then a winding trail following the ridge of the 
range that fronts the sea, amid beautiful spruces and hemlocks, 
and after crossing the ridge a steep, narrow track through im- 
penetrable brush to the site of an old sawmill, from which either 
right or left-hand trails lead down to the old Netul, which was 
the Indian name of the stream. From here on there is no house or 
clearing. The stream is pure and clear as God made it, a fellow 
to the Nekanakum. One ought to camp at least one night on the 
Netul, to get morning and evening fishing. 

Page nine 



How the Farmer's Boy^May Save and Protect These Birds of 

Economic Value 

C. F. HODGE, Eugene, Oregon 

A bird does not need to be large in order to be of the great- 
est economic importance. In the last number 01 The Oregon 
Sportsman we discussed the food of the bobwhite and the evidence 
indicated the great value of this bird in destroying insects and 
weeds. As these values are beginning to be appreciated state 
game departments are seriously considering the problem of pro- 
tecting and increasing these birds up to the limits of their natural 
weed seed and insect food supply, and the long closed seasons re- 
cently voted in several important states is a practical judgment 
that bobwhites are worth too much to agriculture to be used for 
sport until such increase has been secured. As soon as they have 
increased to the point where they render the greatest practical 
service to agriculture, it will be necessary to reduce numbers 
yearly. Then the surplus may be the most important game re- 
source of the state. How to increase the bobwhite in Oregon is 
a much easier problem than in many of the eastern states. 

The easiest way to increase the stock under Oregon condi- 
tions will be to protect bobwhites from natural enemies, where 
they already exist, and encourage them to breed naturally, any 
surplus being trapped each fall for distribution to other parts of 
the state. However, in cutting grain or hay, nests will be broken 
up and every farmer 's boy and girl ought to know how to save the 
eggs and rear the birds successfully. This, of course, will have 
to be done under proper permits from the Fish and Game 

The eggs of the bobwhite, or any bird, can be prevented from 
chilling at any stage of incubation by carrying them in the crown 
of a felt hat. A straw hat with a handkerchief in the crown will 
do as well. In this way partridge eggs have been carried the 

Fag-e ten 


better part of a day and all hatched normally. Anyone having 
the opportunity to rear bobwhites in the manner suggested should 
have a flock of cochin bantam chickens and keep hens setting 
during the season nests are likely to be disturbed. These little 
fluffy hens hatch the eggs and mother the chicks perfectly. It 
is well to make the nests with fine, moist, sifted peat or leaf 
mould lined with fine chaff, grass or lawn clippings, to prevent 
breaking of the delicate eggs, and every precaution must be 
taken to keep both nest and hen clean and entirely free from 
lice and mites. Also select quiet hens and keep them as tame as 

If no rats, cats or other vermin are around, and if the soil 
has not been contaminated by domestic poultry so that turkeys 
can be reared without danger from blackhead, the bantam hens 
may be allowed to rear the chicks, giving them the free run of 
the garden and orchard. We must be sure that they have plenty 
of insects for the first few days. We may get these by sweeping 
the grass with an insect net, by trapping flies, singeing their 
wings before feeding, by gathering "ants' eggs" from under 
stones or in ant hills, and, best of all for the first meal, by cutting 
weeds or branches covered with plant lice. The standard insect 
food is fly maggots, which may be raised by the peck, as is com- 
monly done for young turkeys. We can also raise meal worms 
in any quantities, and these have often tided a flock over a week 
of cold, stormy weather when fly maggots would not grow and 
other insects could not be collected. 

After the first few days, vegetable matter is eaten freely 
and supplies needed variety. Any of the following may be used: 
fresh chickweed, clover, sorrel blossoms, grasses in blossom or 
seed, weed seeds of all kinds, all sorts of berries in season, as 
well as apple, grated carrot, boiled rice, boiled potato, bread 
crumbs, dry or moistened with either fresh or sour milk. 

Standard artificial foods are: sour milk curds or cottage 
cheese, or any cheese grated or crumbled, and plain custard 
(made by beating an egg in a half cup of fresh milk and baking 

Page eleven 


or scalding). These rich foods must be fed sparingly — a difficult 
thing to do — and the one rule to insure health is, keep appetite 
keen, and vary and alternate sharply different kinds of food. 
Bear in mind the great variety in the bird's natural food; here 
a few insects, there some berries, next weed seeds or tender 

If too much or too rich food is given, it can not be quickly 
digested and absorbed, and the surplus only serves to grow bac- 
teria in the bird's stomach and intestines. Bacteria grow best 
in neutral or alkali foods. If a meal of neutral custard is fol- 
lowed by something sour and coarse, strawberries, sorrel blos- 
soms or chickweed, the pestiferous bacteria will be killed or swept 
out. The appetite will remain keen and the birds healthy. 

The incubation period of the bob white is twenty-four days. 
The eggs can be hatched in an incubator, if it is supplied with 
abundance of moisture ; but the difficulty of doing this makes it 
much easier and safer to hatch under hens. 

The chicks can be reared in a clean incubator quite as easily 
as bantam chickens. They are sociable and intelligent little birds 
and easily tamed. If a whistle somewhat like their feeding note 
is used consistently in tending them, they soon learn to come at 
call and follow a person as they would a parent bird. It is not 
advisable to pinion the young birds as they will use their wings 
to good advantage in flying to the whistle ; and they need their 
wings to escape cats and other natural enemies on the ground. 

As to handling of breeding stock, size and arrangement of 
yard and cages, the first point to note is that the birds fly like 
bullets. Hence cages must be small to prevent developing speed 
in flight, which is likely to cripple or kill the birds if they strike 
the wire. Six by twelve feet is a good size for a breeding cage 
for two or three pairs. Single pairs have bred well in cages three 
by six feet, and since, if not well paired, the males are likely to 
fight viciously, it is generally best to keep a single pair in a cage. 

The next point is, the bobwhite is strictly monogamous. We 
may have one cock and two hens in a cage ; both hens will lay, 

Pag*e twelve 


but only the eggs of one of them will hatch. The cocks will help 
in brooding the eggs and in care of the young. After a nest full 
of 16 to 20 eggs have been laid, the cock may begin to brood 
and the hen may make another nest and continue laying. 
The birds do not brood with entire satisfaction under confine- 
ment, and if, say, 20 eggs have been laid and neither bird shows 
signs of brooding, put the eggs under a bantam hen and sub- 
stitute plaster of paris casts in the bobwhite's nest. If abun- 
dantly supplied with insect food, the hens will lay from 65 to 
100 eggs in a season, practically all of them fertile. 

By following the above suggestion, it will be possible to save 
thousands of bobwhite eggs which are likely to be destroyed in 
haying and harvesting on the farms. 




Baker 157,270 Linn 400,500 

Benton 236,000 Marion 210,000 

Clackamas 477,900 Multnomah 510,000 

Clatsop 35,200 Polk 42,900 

Columbia 37,850 Tillamook 122,000 

Coos 7,500 Grant 45,135 

Douglas 689,800 Crook 149,300 

Hood River 290,400 Umatilla 255,700 

Jackson 1,502,375 Union 51,750 

Josephine 1,530,115 Washington 240,700 

Klamath 282,475 Wasco 134,400 

Lincoln 35,795 Wallowa 199,800 

Lane 532,600 Yamhill 553,332 

Total 8,730,797 

Total for 1911 1,905,840 

Total for 1912 7,444,548 

Total for 1913 8,730,797 

Pagre thirteen 



Salary and Expenses checking County Records $ 951.35 

Printing Game Licenses and Tags 1,690.52 

Salary State Game Warden 3,100.00 

Expenses State Game Warden 656.65 

Stationery and Printing 2,048.24 

Salaries Deputy Game Wardens 36,558.75 

Expenses Deputy Game Wardens 16,935.91 

Salaries Special Deputy Game Wardens 2,964.30 

Expenses Special Deputy Game Wardens 1,207.65 

State Game Farm Propagation and Expenses 4,755.97 

State Game Farm Salaries 2,356.45 

Office Expense 4,003.30 

Office Salaries 3,223.49 

Commissioners' Per Diem and Expenses 1,065.46 

Educational Work — Salaries and Expenses 3,609.43 

Court and Legal Expense 409.60 

Game Birds and Game Animals Introduced 2,497.01 

Game Refuge Expense 975.31 

Bounties and Rewards 849.33 

Field and Scientific Work — Salaries and Expenses 2,594.65 

Total . .$92,453.37 

Expenses of Hatcheries and Trout Distribution. 

Bonneville Hatchery $12,615.84 

Spencer Creek Hatchery 3,445.86 

Crescent, Odell, Davis Lakes' Station 1,515.13 

McKenzie River Hatchery 1,286.84 

Yaquina, Tillamook and Siuslaw Hatcheries 855.10 

Strawberry Lake, Wallowa and Olive Lake Hatcheries 783.96 

Salmon River and Umpqua Hatcheries 121.45 

Ament Fishway and Dam 258.10 

Total $20,882.28 

Deputy Salary and Expense $ 1,066.68 

Fish Car Salaries and Expenses 4,126.90 

Purchase of Fish Car and Equipment 7,242.51 

General Trout Expense and Equipment 2,197.17 

Purchase of Trout Eggs 3,188.27 

Distribution of Bass and Salaries 1,039.36 

United States Government Co-operation 3,978.38 

Total ' .$23,139.27 

Fa*e fourteen Grand Total > $136,474.92 



By H. B. Van Duzer, 

President Multnomah Anglers' Club. 

It was originally planned to hold this convention to organize a state 
association on January 16th, but from letters received from various sports- 
men's organizations throughout the state, it was thought more time was 
needed in making the necessary preparations incidental to such a gathering. 

In response to repeated urging on the part of representative sportsmen' 
in all parts of the state, it has been decided to issue a call for the state 
convention to be held at Portland on Monday, March 16th, in the Convention 
Hall of the Commercial Club. Throughout the state there are about sixty 
clubs that are entitled to affiliate in this proposed state convention. The 
need of such an organization is apparent, and the hearty co-operation of all 
clubs is solicited. 

The prime motive of such an organization is the betterment of condi- 
tions affecting the protection and propagation of game and fish in the 
state. There are many matters along these lines that properly come under 
the jurisdiction of such an organization. 

In a state as large as Oregon, with the climatic and other conditions 
so varied, and with the desires of the sportsmen of some localities appar- 
ently diametrically opposed to those of others, the value of a "clearing 
house," where differences can be settled among themselves and not be used 
as weapons by those opposed to game legislation or regulation, must be 
patent to all who have given the matter any attention. 

It is not the purpose of the Multnomah County sportsmen to attempt 
by force of numbers to control the organization. The tentative plan gives 
each club represented one vote in the convention regardless of the numer- 
ical strength of the club or of the number of delegates present representing 
each club. It is urged that as many delegates as possible be sent from each 
club with this understanding. 

As a method of organization, it is suggested that outside of the gen- 
eral officers of the organization, the Executive Committee be composed 
of members representing the different sections of the state, the same to be 
elected by the clubs of those sections present at the convention. In other 
words, the Executive Committeeman from northeastern Oregon will be 
selected by the club from that section. Inasmuch as the Executive Com- 
mittee will be continually "on the job," this method will, in our minds, 
insure the proper recognition of the needs and desires of each section. 

These suggestions are made for the consideration of the sportsmen of 
the state, and it is hoped they will respond in goodly numbers and make the 
proposed organization a success from the start. 

Faff* fifteen 






Anglers ' Combination 

County Hunters' 

Baker 790.00 820.00 546.00 

Benton 1,297.00 890.00 308.00 

Clackamas 1,633.00 1,740.00 212.00 

Clatsop 753.00 854.00 448.00 

Columbia 877.00 319.00 182.00 

Coos 2,148.00 1,215.00 962.00 

Crook 832.00 1,635.00 396.00 

Curry 610.00 430.00 190.00 

Douglas 2,558.00 1,319.00 548.00 

Gilliam 283.00 84.00 22.00 

Grant 320.00 375.00 96.00 

Harney 580.00 218.00 156.00 

Hood River . . 505.00 886.00 96.00 

Jackson 2,871.00 2,586.00 1,016.00 

Josephine 1,216.00 510.00 200.00 

Klamath 1,663.00 1,173.00 398.00 

Lake 747.00 649.00 234.00 

Lane 3,526.00 2,597.00 1,200.00 

Lincoln 460.00 732.00 146.00 

Linn 2,240.00 1,405.00 572.00 

Malheur 531.00 184.00 64.00 

Marion 3,682.00 3,224.00 20.00 

Morrow 196.00 261.00 48.00 

Multnomah . . . 8,612.00 11,607.00 1,752.00 

Polk 1,057.00 726.00 258.00 

Sherman . 123.00 238.00 30.00 

Tillamook 688.00 1,035.00 396.00 

Umatilla 1,553.00 1,927.00 528.00 

Union 1,113.00 1,532.00 406.00 

Wallowa 862.00 1,223.00 . 142.00 

Wasco 590.00 1,185.00 202.00 

Washington . . 1,951.00 1,117.00 380.00 

Wheeler 144.00 118.00 32.00 

Yamhill 1,479.00 1,246.00 434.00 

Total $48,490.00 $46,060.00 $12,620.00 


48,490 Resident Hunting Licenses at $1.00 

46,060 Resident Angling Licenses at $1.00 

6,310 Combination Licenses at $2.00 •. 

163 Non-resident Licenses at $10.00 
















$1,630.00 $108,800.00 

$ 48,490.00 

, 46,060.00 






Number Number Amount 

of of of Fines Cases Fines 

County Arrests Convictions Fines Suspended Pending Appealed 

Baker 9 1 $ 50.00 

Benton 4 4 100.00 

Clackamas 15 14 470.00 

Clatsop 8 8 275.00 $ 50.00 

Coos 4 3 75.00 25.00 

Columbia 6 3 25.00 

Curry 9 6 230.50 1 

Douglas 24 11 525.00 75.00 

Harney 2 1 25.00 1 

Hood River ... 8 8 100.00 

Jackson 9 5 25.00 

Josephine 4 2 50.00 . 25.00 

Klamath 10 7 150.00 

Lake 4 3 75.00 

Lane 6 3 225.00 2 

Lincoln 4 2 75.00 

Linn 7 6 135.00 

Malheur 5 2 75.00 3 

Marion 26 22 505.00 75.00 4 $ 50.00 

Morrow 1 1 50.00 

Multnomah 60 47 1,380.00 435.00 100.00 

Polk 4 3 75.00 

Tillamook 14 13 425.00 175.00 

Umatilla 12 9 550.00 250.00 

Union 4 2 25.00 25.00 

Wallowa 11 8 225.00 50.00 

Wasco 5 3 55.00 

Washington ... 23 19 550.00 

Yamhill 14 13 250.00 1 

Total 312 229 $6,775.00 $1,185.00 12 $150.00^ 

24 iai? 


MARCH 1914 




By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II ] 

5c a copy — 50c a year 

[ Number 3 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II MARCH 1914 Number 3 


Deputy Game Warden E. H. Clark recently arrested two 
Italians in Tillamook County for hunting without a license. 
Both of these men had shotguns which were seized for evidence. 
The case was presented to County Attorney Gersoni of Tilla- 
mook. He refused to prosecute the case, saying that he believed 
the law was unconstitutional. 

At the last session of the Oregon legislature, a statute was 
passed making it unlawful for an alien to hunt or angle, or to 
have in possession any shotgun, rifle or any firearms while in 
the field or forest or in any tent, car or camp in the state, with- 
out first securing a gun license at the cost of twenty-five dollars. 
Neither of the Italians mentioned above had secured a gun li- 
cense or a hunting license. 

A provision of the laws of 1913, Chapter 332, provides that 
it shall be the duty of a district or prosecuting attorney to prose- 
cute any case in which it appears that any of the laws for the 
protection of wild animals, birds or fish have been violated. 
But what is the use of compelling a county attorney to prosecute 
a case when he has already taken the stand that the law is 
unconstitutional ? 


Inasmuch as an alien license law was passed by the legisla- 
ture in 1913, it should be enforced until it is declared void by 
the courts. The causes which led the legislature to pass the 
law were as follows : 

Many aliens, especially those coming from southern European 
countries, have no regard whatever for game laws. They con- 
fuse trespass or hunting restrictions with infringement upon 
their personal liberty and oftentimes a foreigner will resist an 

Page one 


officer even to the shedding of blood. They have to be taught 
that this is not a land of ''unlimited freedom." Many of these 
people are not even intelligent enough to know that the right to 
fish and hunt does not belong to them at all, but that it is a 
privilege granted by the state upon certain conditions. The 
alien as a rule knows not the difference between a game bird 
and a song sparrow, robin or meadowlark; everything that flies 
makes good pot-pie. 

This is well illustrated by the following example, which was 
told us by Mr. Joseph Kalbfus, of Pennsylvania. It had been 
reported that the Italians in a certain community were violating 
the game laws. A warden visited the camp. One of the Ital- 
ians was sick in bed. Upon inquiry, his companion said he had 
been hunting. "He etta too mucha the big chick.*' At the 
side of the cabin the warden found the head and feathers of a 
turkey buzzard. 


In 1909 the legislature of Pennsylvania passed an alien gun 
law and it was signed by Governor Stuart on May 8th of that 
year. The bill provided that no alien in that state could own a 
gun, and that the state not only had the right to seize weapons 
owned by aliens, but to search the domiciles of aliens if there 
was reason to believe firearms were held contrary to the law. 

Besides the prohibition against the use of firearms, the law 
also provides that "it shall be unlawful for any unnaturalized, 
foreign-born resident of Pennsylvania to hunt for, capture or 
kill any wild bird or animal, game or otherwise, except in de- 
fense of person or property." 

A vigorous protest was made at the time and foreign govern- 
ments were appealed to in an effort to compel Pennsylvania to 
retract. The law was tested in the state courts and upheld, and 
was finally carried to the United States Supreme Court. The 
contest has been a long and bitter one. On January 19. 1914, 
a decision was handed down by Justice Holmes sustaining the 
constitutionality of the law. 

Page two 





How to Rear This Shy Bird in Captivity and Some 

of Its Habits 

The ruffed grouse, called "pheasant" in the west and south 
and "partridge" in the north, has long been considered untam- 
able and impossible to rear or breed under control. These myths 
about the difficulty of propagating all kinds of American game 
animals and birds are a distinct demerit mark against the in- 
telligence and even common sense of American sportsmen. The 
game breeders of Europe, and even Asia, have worked out meth- 
ods by which their game may be bred. Why can we not do the 

A ruffed grouse raised in captivity, tame enough to feed from the hand 

same for our valuable American species? While I have no ob- 
jection to introducing foreign species, under proper control, 

Page three 



S P O B T S M A N 

still, at best it is always an experiment and involves serious 
risks. It is no trifling matter that a species has developed along 
with the insect and plant foods and natural enemies of a large 
continent for thousands of years, and we should certainly do the 
fair thing by native species, before introducing possibly inferior 
or injurious species to take their place. 

Experiments of recent years by myself and several others, 
have proved that ruffed grouse chicks hatch perfectly tame and. 

Ruffed grouse or "native pheasant," generally found in damp thickets in mid- 
day or at the edge of a field in the early morning or late afternoon 

aside from disease infections likely to be caught from domestic 
fowls, are as easy to raise as bantam chickens. The young birds, 
in common with bob white chicks and even young chickens, have 
a way of squeezing into cracks about their coop and may be- 
come wedged in so tight that they are unable to back out. All 
cracks about brooders or incubators must be very carefully 
filled, before attempting to use them for these small birds. 

Page four 




In general ruffed grouse chicks are reared according to the 
directions given for the bobwhite. Foods for the first four 
weeks are practically the same. The ruffed grouse is somewhat 
more delicate, or, at any rate, I had two killed by swallow- 
ing -too large insects (one by a large black cricket, the other 
by a big spider), which completely blocked the passage at en- 
trance to the gizzard. Much smaller bobwhites commonly swal- 
lowed fully as large things but were never known to experience 

Nest and egg's of ruffed grouse 

any difficulty in digesting anything they could get into their 
mouths. My general impression is that the grouse chicks take 
considerably more berries and fruit and begin earlier to eat 
ehickweed and sorrel blossoms, and they increase the relative 
amounts of vegetable matter eaten faster than the bobwhite. 
Anyway, I always kept them supplied with all sorts of such 
vegetable food to pick and choose from. Grit, with charcoal, is 
likewise kept before them from the first day. 

Fag-e- five 


Ruffed grouse have a characteristic way of hatching. The 
chicks pip the shell and make a good-sized hole through which 
to breathe. Then they rest for from 24 to 36 hours, and then, 
.as though at signal, all begin to break out a circle around the 
large end of the egg and all step out, almost dry, at practically 
'the same time. Having taken all but two clutches of eggs from 
the wild, incubation time unknown, and having been unavoid- 
ably away from home when eggs laid in confinement hatched, 
I am not quite certain as to the incubation period of the ruffed 
grouse. I think the birds break out of the shell on the twenty- 
fifth day. The fact of their long rest after pipping brings them 
out hungry and they begin actively hunting and catching in- 
sects the first morning. I am inclined, however, to feed only 
insects, grit and chickweed the first day, and insects a little 
sparingly. Plant lice, as with the bobwhite, constitute the best 
food for the first day. 

In great contrast to the bobwhite the ruffed grouse is 
essentially a solitary bird. True, the mother and young form 
a covey during the first season, but I have never seen a cock pay 
the slightest attention to his own "wife and children." In- 
stances are on record of ruffed grouse showing some social in- 
stinct, even to apparently being attached to a man and follow- 
ing him about. I never saw a sign of any intelligence of this 
kind in my birds reared in confinement or in those captured from 
the wild. It ought to be sought for and, if found, preserved, as 
a rare exhibition of an instinct which might be put to good ac- 
count in developing a race of semi-domesticated grouse. Any 
grouse in my cages would hop upon my knee and feed from my 
hand, but apparently show no more appreciation than it I nad 
been a stump and the berries had been on the bush. In harmony 
with this solitary habit, and again in contrast to the bobwhites, 
ruffed grouse are almost voiceless and characteristically silent 
birds. The chicks have a plaintive cry or squeak which they use 
for the first weeks when lost, or as a flock-call. As they grow 
older, they become mute, except for a little hissing of the cocks 

Pag-e six 




when they strut, and "mewing" of the hens if disturbed with 
their young. 

Like the wild turkey, ruffed grouse are polygamous, one 
mating being sufficient for an entire clutch of eggs. For 
reasons to be detailed, it is necessary to keep cocks and hens in 
separate cages during the breeding season, which is from 
March to June, and since the cocks fight desperately and, I 
think, would kill each other if confined together, each cock 

Grouse strutting* and showing* ruff of glossy black feathers and 

fan-shaped tail 

should have a separate cage at some distance from that of 
another cock. At all other times of the year any number of 
cocks and hens can be kept together in the same cage. As the 
breeding, season- opens- the -eecks- begin to drum and continue for 
about two months — from March or April to May or June. This 
is purely a mate call. At this season it is only necessary to slip 
a hen into the cage with the cock and mating takes place imme- 
diately. An soon as this is done, the hen must be removed, for 

Page seven 


the cock is likely to proceed forthwith to peck a mated hen to 
death. This fact has been noted by others who have had ruffed 
grouse in confinement, and I have had a hen completely scalped 
within a few minutes of mating. 

After mating the hen will lay her clutch. The hens I had 
proved to be good sitters. However, as the warm days of June 
come on, she is likely to spend a good deal of time off the eggs. 
The eggs should not be interfered with on this account, but left 
entirely undisturbed. 

Disease prevention is more difficult in case of the ruffed 
grouse than with the bobwhite. At any rate, this has been the 
case in my own experiments. Common fowls carry, in many 
parts of the country, internal parasites (probably coccidia pro- 
tozoa) which are likely to prove fatal to native American species. 
The germs are the same that cause black-head in turkeys, and 
probably this fact alone is sufficient explanation why our native 
grouse have not long since been domesticated. If it is possible 
to rear turkeys in the region with chickens, these germs are 
probably not present in the chickens. If they are present, it will 
be necessary to rear the chicks, from the time they pip the shell, 
in clean incubators and brooders, and off ground contaminated 
by fowls. 

There is one other complication which should be carefully 
studied throughout Oregon. On the ruffed grouse is often found 
a ''flying tick," or parasitic fly, which may be the means of 
inoculating the germs into the grouse by its bite. These ticks 
are quick fliers, leave a bird the moment it is shot, but can 
sometimes be caught on or in the feathers as soon as the bird 
falls. A good way to secure specimens would be to throw an in- 
sect net over a shot bird as quickly as possible. The idea has 
been advanced by some who have studied the problem in the 
East that these ticks are responsible for the death of a great 
many grouse in the woods. The writer sent a speciment to Pro- 
fessor Novy, of Ann Arbor, and he immediately reported that 
we probably had in this insect the carrier of the germs of black- 
head to the grouse. If this is true, these ticks are probably 

Pagre eight 


making it difficult or impossible to rear turkeys in certain parts 
of Oregon, as well as elsewhere. These facts were brought to 
my attention about the close of my own experiments with ruffed 
grouse. In trying to raise the birds again, I should keep them 
under cages of screen wire for the first three months at least, 
and give the matter of parasitic insects most thorough investi- 
gation. The ticks in question are nearly the size of the house or 
stable fly and would be excluded by the common fly screen. 
They are so strong, I should be afraid lest they force their way 
through cloth mosquito netting. 

Probably rearing the ruffed grouse would be more profit- 
able than even the bobwhite, for demands for stocking covers 
are urgent from many parts of the country, and the supply 
practically nil. As stated for the bobwhite, the easiest way to 
rear the birds is to give them effective protection from natural 
enemies and allow them to take care of their broods in the woods. 
A homesteader in a place where the grouse are numerous and 
naturally tame might do a thriving business in connection with 
the Fish and Game Commission, and at the same time gather 
much valuable information as to the feeding, care and practical 
handling of this fine game bird under Oregon conditions. 


A general state rally of anglers and hunters will be held on 
March 15th at the home of the Portland Gun Club. A prize 
trap shooting contest and a fly casting tournament is on the 
program, which is open to all visiting members. The following 
day, March 16th, representatives from the various sportsmen's 
organizations throughout the state will hold a convention at the 
Commercial Club. The interest that has been shown by sports- 
men in all parts of the state in this coming meeting signifies a 
large attendance. After the meeting a banquet will be held at 
the Commercial Club to which all sportsmen are invited. The 
price per plate is one dollar and fifty cents. 

Pagr« ulna 



By Walter F. Backus. 

There are several thousand anglers in the city of Portland who go fish- 
ing a few times each season, and there are several hundred who go out 
pretty regularly all summer long, but until this year the number who kept 
their rods busy all winter have been comparatively few. 

But it seems as though the rank and file have begun to realize that 
they are missing some real good sport when they pass up the winter fish- 
ing. On some of the nearby streams, particularly the Sandy Eiver, there 
are ten times as many fishermen taking part in the winter angling as 
there were two years ago. 

The main reason for this sudden increase is the steelhead fishing. These 
fine fish ascend the river during January and February and furnish sport 
of the very highest order. They will average, twelve pounds in weight and 
have been caught as large as twenty pounds. 

They will take a drifting bait with a bang that fairly makes the 
angler's toes wiggle, and once they get the hook, there's no telling where 
they will stop. 

And it's this ever-present possibility of getting fast to a ten-pound 
silver arrow that makes the winter angler go forth in all sorts of weather. 

There are two ways of taking steelheads: by still fishing with a bait 
anchored near the bottom, or by casting with a free-running reel and letting 
the bait drift near the waiting fish. So far no bait has been found which 
equals a large chunk of fresh salmon eggs, and they are used by nearly 
all the fishermen, much to the disgust of various non-fishing members of 
the angler's family. 

The still fisherman selects a likely looking riffle or eddy, heaves out 
his baited hook, sets his rod over a forked stick, and then squats alongside 
a brush fire to keep warm and await developments. 

On the other hand, the bait-caster is continually on the move, sending 
his bait flying into every likely bit of water, always hoping that it will 
drift near enough to a resting fish to start something. The still fisher 
waits for the fish to find his bait, while the bait-caster tries his best to 
find the fish. Each man thinks his style of fishing the only way, and, 
strange to say, the two methods of fishing are about equally productive of 

During the early part of January the fishing on the Sandy was very 
good, and it should be fully as good during February. Of course, no large 
number of fish have been taken, but no one expects it. If an angler is 
lucky enough to get two or three strikes in a day, he thinks he has done 
well, and one glistening ten or twelve-pound steelhead is considered a good 
day's catch. 

Pag* text 



With Some Descriptions of the Country, Fish and Fishing— Part 4 




The county of Tillamook is richly favored with superb fish- 
ing waters. Almost every mile along the mountain roads a 
trout brook comes dashing down a ravine, or goes furtively, as 
a mink threading the alder thickets. Little brooks only a mile 
or two long pour into the sea direct from the bold shores, and 
these swarm with little trout, and in the fall and winter are 
choked with spawning salmon. 

If we follow the road south from Tillamook City and up the 
river which bears the name of the region, twelve miles travel 
brings us to a fine tributary of the Nestucca — the branch being 
known as Beaver Creek. The names Rock, Beaver, Clear, Muddy, 
and even Elk, Cow and Bear, are applied to streams in nearly 
every township of western Oregon, and frequently to several 
streams in the same county. In eastern Oregon, Dry Creek is 
even more frequent. This Beaver Creek of Tillamook deserves 
a different if not better name. It is a stream of good volume 
and easily fished, the road from Tillamook to Cloverdale follow- 
ing nearly all its length. The praises of Beaver Creek are sung 
most heartily by Col. George Henderson, who spends most of his 
time on its waters and fishes many other tributaries of the fa- 
mous Nestucca. Among these is, of course, a Clear Creek and 
an Elk Creek. 

At the very source of Nestucca in Washington county is 
Meadow Lake, a natural trout pond, which is now a preserve of 
the Meadow Lake Club. Eastern brook trout (salvelinus fonti- 
nalus) have been planted here with success, and it is hoped may 
follow the river down its course. 

Three Rivers and Little Nestucca are large branches coming 

Page eleven 


in on the lower Xestucca from southward. They are remote 
enough to assure one of abundant fish, and indeed the river and 
bay of Nestucca are famous for years as a great natural park 
and sporting ground. 

Neskowen, the next river south, flows directly into the sea, 
and compares well with Elk Creek in its importance and inter- 
est for the fisherman. It is conveniently reached by a branch 
road from Nestucca, and a longer route from Dolph. 

Salmon River. This, too, is one of many grand streams by 
the same name. This one lies between the Tillamook and the 
Lincoln county streams, some of its branches rising in the former 
county. It is a long trip any way you may choose, and only 
possible for wagon in late Summer. One route in from the Wil- 
lamette is via the Sheridan-Grande Ronde highway, and it is 
possible also to go in from Nestucca valley. 

Camping is the only practicable plan in these last de- 
scribed waters, but that is the very sort of country and life to 
enjoy to the utmost. It has the great economic advantage also 
that you cannot bring fish out to the valley or Portland without 
risk of spoiling, so the camper contents himself with what he 
can consume on the spot. 

In very favorable weather, a rare automobile has made its 
way to the mouth of Salmon river, but it is risky work and the 
auto is fortunately not much in fashion in Tillamook and Lincoln. 

The character of fishing and fish in Salmon River is much 
as described in Trask. The stream is the resort of great runs 
of salmon and abundant cut-throat and steelhead trout. 


Gray's River and Deep River, falling into Gray's Bay on 
the Washington side, are reached from Astoria by boat and are 
good fishing. The latter river is also accessible by a trail from 
the Skamokawa, a fine fishing stream, opposite Clifton on the 
A. & C. A launch connects at Clifton with night trains and 
brings the fisherman to Cathlamet, four miles northeast, from 

Page twelve 


which the Elokomin, another beautiful stream of the Washing- 
ton shore, is to be reached. Steamers from Portland also stop at 
Cathlamet and Skamokawa, and one can sleep on board, tramp 
and fish all day and take the night boat home with a certainty 
of solid sleep after the vigorous exercise of the day. 

For nearly twenty miles east of Cathlamet the mountain 
side facing the river is unbroken, but at Oak Point comes in 
Abernathy's Mill Creek, and five miles farther east Germany 
Creek, both of which are good streams and fine fishing. The 
latter can be conveniently reached from Maygers by a launch 
which connects with trains, and if one chooses he can find good 
accommodations at Stella, Washington, near the Germany. 

Farther east, opposite Eainier, comes in the Cowlitz, and 
into it a number of good streams fall. These, and the Kalama, 
are conveniently reached by the trains of the Northern Pacific 
R. R. Lewis River, entering the Columbia opposite St. Helens, 
is a large river, and one must usually go far above Woodland, 
its most convenient railroad station, for trout. 

Still following the Washington shore, by steamer or S. P. & 
S. R. R., we reach Washougal, a large river with two important 
branches known as the North and South forks, and a third, 
nearer Lacamas, the Little Washougal, which is, like the main 
river, a famous trout stream. A trip to either of these should 
be made prepared for at least one night out. 

In the heart of the Cascades at Stevenson, is Rock Creek, 
a beautiful stream with picturesque cataracts and good fishing, 
and farther east, opposite Hood River, the White Salmon and 
Klickitat, both famous streams, the home of huge rainbow trout. 
I saw a catch of a dozen from the latter in 1910, every fish above 
thirty inches long. Such monsters are usually to be had only 
with bait or skillful, patient trolling with a spinner. From the 
Klickitat eastward in the late summer, one may go a hundred 
miles along the north shore to the mouth of the Yakima and not 
find a stream to yield even a drink. There are many small 
streams, rising farther back in the Simcoe mountains, but all 
are drunk up by the plains before they reach the river. 

Page thirteen 






Mr. J. D. Creech, of Halfway, 
Oregon, reports that he saw three 
bear out some time during the mid- 
dle of January. They had not 
''holed up" at all. It was Mr. 
Creech's intentions to take his dogs 
and try his skill in bear hunting as 
soon as he returned to Pine Valley. 

* # * 

The Panhandle Rod and Gun Club, 
of Cornucopia and Halfway, held a 
very enthusiastic meeting on Feb- 
ruary 2nd. They are willing to 
raise a fund to pay half of a man's 
salary to keep violators from dyna- 
miting Fish Lake, during the early 
part of the season. Some parties in 
that locality have made a practice 
of shooting this lake during the 
early part of the season for the past 
three years. No one seems to know 
positively who the violators are, but 
have reason to think they come 
from Homestead or Copperfield. 


Mr. Ben S. Patton, deputy game 
warden at Estacada, reports that on 
February 3d, 4th and 5th in the 
South Fork, Fish Creek and Cold 
Springs country, he saw consider- 
able evidence that deer were being 
molested by timber wolves. The 
wolves in this locality have been 
worse than usual during the past 
winter, as there has been very little 
snow and it has been hard to track 


* * * 

The new law permitting the catch- 

ing of trout over ten inches the year 
round seems to meet with the gen- 
eral approval of the Clackamas 
County sportsmen, and there is not 
as much trouble with fishermen 
catching undersized fish as was ex- 

* * # 

The number of trout hatched and 
liberated from the hatchery at River 
Mill on the Clackamas this last 
season will help the fishing greatly 
in that locality. Old fishermen say 
they never saw so many small trout 
in the river before, all ranging 
around four inches. Most of these 
fish will be over the six-inch limit 
by summer. 


Mr. Frank Patton, of the Astoria 
Savings Bank, reports the most sat- 
isfactory season for duck shooting 
during the past twenty years. 

"We often had the limit by eight 
o 'clock in the morning. At times 
we had thousands of ducks resting 
on our lake. There were but two 
of us shooting and we bagged a 
total of eight hundred and four 
ducks for the season. This is an 
average of twenty-nine for each day 
we were out." 


J. A. Dewey, Martin and Frank 
Redfield, who live on upper Cow 
Creek, have been very successful 
with their trapping. They have 
trapped five cougar, two bob cats 
and one bear during the past season. 

Fag-e fourteen 




One cougar they bound and brought 

home alive. 

* * 

Lem Emmerson came down to 
Roseburg from Perdue recently with 
scalps of one wolf, two cougar and 
sixteen bob cats, which he had 

Ed Durgess also brought in scalps 
of four cats from the same country. 
* * * 

Mr. J. E. Clark, of Yoncalla, re- 
ports that good catches of trout are 
being reported. The dam which has 
held the fish back on Elk Creek 
has been partly torn out and salmon 
and sea trout are running up that 
stream in abundance. 

* V * 

Quite a number of people have 
been catching steelhead trout in the 
South Umpqua River within the 
city limits of Roseburg the past 
month, ranging from six pounds to 
twenty-five pounds. Walt Cordon 
on February 11th, caught a steel- 
head that weighed twenty-five 
pounds, taking about fifty minutes 
to land it. xie used a light pole 
and tackle. 


One of the largest cougars seen 
in this locality was brought to 
Grants Pass a few days ago by Dell 
Churchill. The animal was killed in 
the northern part of the county, 
weighed one hundred and fifty 
pounds and measured seven and a 
half feet from tip to tip. Dell" 
Churchill is one of the most suc- 
cessful hunters in this part of the 
state, frequently bringing in cou- 

gars, bob cats and other ''var- 
mints. ' ' 

* * * 

Five bob cats and two coyotes 
were brought in from the Placer dis- 
trict a few days ago by W. R. 


* * # 

F. D. Collett, of the Waldo dis- 
trict, brought in four bob cats re- 
cently. Merlin, Leland, Deer Creek, 
Sucker Creek, Williams Creek and 
the Galice districts are also contrib- 
uting their share of the "varmints' 7 
to the hunter and trapper, adding 

profit as well as sport to the game. 

* # # 

At the present time and until 
about April 1st, bait fishing for 
steelheads in the Rogue River at 
and near Grants Pass will be at its 
best. Many, large catches are being 
made daily when weather conditions 
are favorable. With the water in 
its present fairly clear state and 
a cloudy day, the limit of catch 
allowed by the state fish law is 
not uncommon. The fish are of fine 


Several rabbit drives in the vi- 
cinity of Silver Lake in the past 
month have resulted in the death of 

more than six thousand rabbits. 

* # * 

Mr. Jeff Howard recently came 
in from Jack's Creek country with 

twelve fine marten pelts. 

* * * 

Mr. William LaSater, of Silver 
Lake, Oregon, reports that two hun- 
dred deer is a conservative estimate 
of the number wintering in the low 

Page fifteen 




hills in his locality. In some in- 
stances deer have come in and fed 
from hay stacks. Sixteen head were 
counted from the roadway ten miles 
north of Silver Lake one day dur- 
ing the latter part of February. 

* * # 

On February 23d, Mr. William La- 
Sater reports that large numbers of 
Canada geese have returned to the 
Silver Lake country. They have 
already begun to pair off. In the 
Silver Lake and Paulina marshes 
there are about four hundred swans. 

ter than for several years in the 

past. There is no question but that 

the liberation of a large number of 

fingerlings from the state hatcheries 

has shown splendid results in this as 

well as other streams. 
* * * 

W. F. Backus, Eay C. Winter, H. 
Pollock, L. H. Dart and B. Went 
returned recently from a fishing 
trip along the Nehalem River. Their 
catch consisted of fifteen steelheads 
and seventy-five cut-throat trout 
ranging from ten to fifteen inches. 

Mr. J. W. Donnelly came to Pais- 
ley recently with fifty-six coyote 
and twenty-one bob cat hides. This 
was the result of his work in the 

hills north of Paisley. 

* * * 

On February 11th the first geese 
of the season came to Warner Lake. 
The migration is earlier this year 
because there has not been so much 


* * * 

On February 5th sixteen deer were 
seen traveling south through the 
south end of Drew's Valley. The 
band no doubt had been living in 
the mahogany thickets till they ran 
out of feed and were compelled to 

The records of the county clerk's 
office for 1913 show that the fol- 
lowing were the number of animals 
on which bounties were paid: coy- 
otes, 2860; bob cats, 502; cougar, 2. 


Many anglers report that winter 
fishing in the Sandy has been bet- 

B. H. Miller, of the Honeyman 
Hardware Company, caught a steel- 
head trout on the Sandy River a 
short way above Cottrell station 
that measured thirty-seven inches. 
It weighed, when dressed, a flat 
seventeen pounds. Mr. Miller landed 
this big fish on a number ten single 
hook, using salmon eggs. 

* V * 

The first honor for the January 
steelhead fishing went to L. A. 
Mathisen, who took eight of the big 
fellows during the month. Mr. 
Mathisen is an ei*pert at still fish- 
ing, and seems to know just where 

to locate the favorite resting places. 
* # * 

C. C. Harris and Geo. Woodward, 
while fishing on the Sandy, grew 
tired of casting for steelheads that 
refused to strike, so they put on 
small hooks and began lishing the 
eddies for sea trout. In a few min- 
utes each man hooked a big steel- 
head, which, in each instance, calm- 
ly straightened out the light trout 
hooks and -went about their busi- 

Page sixteen 




W. C. Block, who believes in the 
use of the drifting bait, hooked 
five fine fish in one day recently, 
but managed to get but two of 
them ashore. This was Block's first 
experience with steelheads, and as 
they were unusually hard fighters 
it isn 't surprising that some of 
them made their getaway. 

time. One may see thirty to fifty 
in a band about the farms through 
the central part of the valley. 


All the game birds liberated in 
this county during the past season 
have wintered well except the gol- 
den pheasants. A few of these were 
liberated as an experiment at the 
State Agricultural Farm last sum- 
mer. Although several trials have 
been made in different parts of the 
state, the golden pheasant is not a 
success as a game bird. 

* * * 

On February 20th a big buck deer 
visited La Grande. He was seen at 
the barn of Mr. Bert Hughes. A 
dog chased the animal away, but 
it stopped on the side hill where 
several people had a chance to see 
it. It finally made its way back to 
the. mountains. 

* * * 

The good news comes from Union 

and Cove, Oregon, that there is talk 

of organizing a joint Rod and Gun 

Club for the two towns. A club of 

this kind is sure to make game con- 

ditions in that immediate locality 


* * * 

The Chinese pheasants in the 
Grande Ronde Valley are thriving 
well this winter. The snow has not 
been over three inches deep at any 


One of the heaviest penalties ever 
:nflicted for a violation of the Ore- 
gon game laws was imposed on Jan- 
uary 19th by Judge Gilbert W. 
Phelps, at Pendleton. He sentenced 
George Forrest, the rancher con- 
victed of killing two elk, to pay a 
fine of five hundred dollars. This 
carried with it the costs of the 
case, amounting to about two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars additional. 
By the time he has paid the two 
attorneys, Mr. Forrest will have 
paid approximately one thousand 
dollars, or two dollars and fifty 
cents a pound for his meat. The 
arrest was made and the case 
worked up by District Warden E. F. 
Averill, of Pendleton. 


E. B. Dinsmore, Fred Temphuier 
and W. A. Marsh, three sportsmen 
from Mosier, Oregon, went out Jan- 
uary 8th after a big cougar that 
was reported in the woods on the 
west fork of Mill Creek. They had 
two Airedales and two Fox hounds, 
and on the third day treed the 
cougar and killed it. The animal 
was unusually large. 

X * * 

The sportsmen of The Dalles have 
organized a Rod and Gun Club and 
elected officers for the year 1914. 
There are twenty-five charter mem- 


MAR 24 1917 


APRIL 1914 




By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II ] 

5c a copy — 50c a year 

[Number 4 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume 11 APRIL 1914 Number 4 


The Salem Journal takes occasion to find fault with the 
administration of game laws and the spending of hunters' and 
anglers' license money. In a recent editorial entitled "State 
Fish and Game Graft," it has the following to say: 

"What is needed most is a law requiring all the revenues 
from fish and game licenses turned into the general fund of the 
state. Then a specific appropriation could be made for the ex- 
penses of the fish and game department, which should not ex- 
ceed $75,000 for the biennial term. 

"If this were done, there would be a net income to the 
state of nearly $100,000 a year. As it has been in the past the 
game warden has made a valiant attempt to spend the entire 
income of the department and has practically succeeded in doing 
so. Last year $137,000 was expended by the commission, a large 
part of it being squandered in useless officials and employes. 

"The next legislature has a duty to the people to perform 
in this matter, and it is to be hoped that the members will have 
the business sense and integrity to do it." 

How Is the Money to be Spent? 

The present is a very favorable time to discuss how the 
Game Protection Fund should be handled. We have always con- 
tended the more interest and general discussion of these matters, 
the better. In 1912 the sale of hunting and angling licenses 
amounted to $85,770.00. In 1913 the license money increased to 
$108,800.00. The increase was on account of the opening of the 
Chinese pheasant season. As more and more people are inter- 
ested in hunting and fishing each year, the Game Protection 
Fund is sure to increase annually. 

If a law is needed requiring all revenues from hunters' and 
anglers' licenses turned into the general fund of the state, this 

Page one 


can easily be done at the next session of the legislature — that is, 
providing the sportsmen of the state are willing. There are 
about fifty thousand men in Oregon who are actively interested 
from the sportsmen's standpoint — nearly enough to express a 
decided opinion. 

Inasmuch as certain people who are running for office are 
raising the hue and cry against the using of a large amount of 
the taxpayers' money in game protection and propagation, it may 
be well to remember that not one cent of this money comes out 
of the general fund of the state. It is paid in by hunters and 
anglers and can be used according to the law for game protection 
and propagation only. 

A Period of Criticism. 

This is essentially a period of criticism when all commis- 
sions should be abolished, when all public officials are thieves, 
when all taxes should be reduced to nothing and when the whole 
state should be turned upside down and shaken to the very 
bottom. The politician who can write the longest platform, 
make the most promises and produce the most striking panacea 
for all our public ills is the man who will really need the most 
votes. Since the world began, it has always been the case that 
the man with the least brains can find the most to criticise. 
There is very little good constructive criticism, for the reason 
that it takes long study of facts and figures. 

The Fish and Game Commission has been criticised for 
spending a large amount of money during the past year. If 
there is any graft connected with the Fish and Game Commis- 
sion, why not publish the facts? The records in the State House 
and the records of the Commission are open to every citizen of 
the state. This money has been spent during the past year in 
the purchase of a fish distribution car, in the purchase of prop- 
erty for hatchery purposes and other permanent equipment 
which was needed, in stocking .the lakes and streams of the 
state with over 8,000,00,0 game fish, in raising and distributing 
over 3,000 game birds in various counties, in the payment of 

Pag-e two 


bounties and in the employment of men for educational and scien- 
tific work and for the enforcement of game laws. 

It is a fact that more has been spent in game protection and 
propagation during the past year than in any previous year, and 
it is also an undeniable fact that far greater results have been 
accomplished. It is a fact that the sportsmen of the state who 
are furnishing the entire amount for game protection and prop- 
agation are not the ones who are finding fault. 

The Fish and Game Commission is endeavoring to make Ore- 
gon a great outdoor state, attractive to our people who need 
outdoor life and recreation, a drawing card for tourists who have 
money to spend and money to invest. Money spent in game pro- 
tection and propagation is a business proposition for the farmer 
and every land-owner in the state. 


Years ago when the buffalo ranged the plains in countless 
numbers, the hide hunter slaughtered and wantonly wasted the 
meat. In an early day the herds of elk in our Oregon mountains 
were treated in the same way. Game was too abundant then to 
think of checking the slaughter. In the early seventies and 
even in the eighties the passenger pigeon was so abundant in 
the east that the birds fairly blackened the sky during their 
migrations. Where they nested in great colonies through the 
middle west, pothunters slaughtered without limit. Men knocked 
the nestlings from the trees and fattened their hogs on them. 
If we had used these birds economically, today they would fur- 
nish food for our people. With the countless numbers of wild 
pigeons of a generation ago, who could have conceived of their 
total disappearance? Today there is not a single record of this 
species in existence. 

The Columbia River Smelt. 

During the past month there was a large run of smelt in 
the Sandy Kiver. The fish were so abundant it was no 
trouble to catch them in nets or make-shift scoops of any kind. 

Pag-e three 


There is no law governing the amount of these fish that can be 
caught or the method of catching them. The fact that the fish 
were so abundant led many people in the vicinity of Troutdale 
to catch them without limit. They loaded the fish into gunny 
sacks and hauled them off in wagons to be used as fertilizer. 
This is criminal waste of a valuable food product. 

Each year the Columbia River smelt come in from the ocean 
in great schools and enter certain streams to spawn. It is a 
curious fact that they pass by many streams and enter the 
Cowlitz and Sandy Rivers. Why these particular streams in 
preference to others, no one really knows. But they come here 
in such numbers that thoughtless people are led to think the 
supply is inexhaustible. 

The Columbia River smelt is the best pan fish we have. It 
is worth far more than some of the other species for which the 
market price is higher. It is a remarkable fact that our markets 
are filled with such a splendid fish at three cents per pound. 
Nature is abundantly kind; but how criminally wasteful we are 
of her supply. A generation ago we fattened our hogs on wild 
pigeons, and today we are using Columbia River smelt to fer- 
tilize our gardens and orchards. Perhaps some day we shall 
wake up and lock the door — when the horse is gone. 


On April 1st a miner by the name of J. Bush, who was em- 
ployed by the C. C. Inman Company on Sixes River was shot by 
Ed Eggers. Mr. Bush was brought to Port Orford, but his 
wound was fatal and he died within twelve hours. Eggers was 
hunting deer out of season and claims he mistook Mr. Bush for 
a deer. Full particulars have not been received. The widow, 
Mrs. Bush, formerly lived at Rogue River. 

The following telegram has been sent to County Attorney 
Meredith of Port Orford by the State Board of Pish and Game 
Commissioners: "We hope you will prosecute the murderer of 
J. Bush to the full extent of the law. His act shows criminal 

Fagfe four 




carelessness and that he was violating the game laws. No man's 
life is safe in the woods unless a law-breaking pothunter like 
Eggers is brought to justice.' ' 


Delegates from thirty-three sportsmen's organizations throughout the 
state assembled in Portland on March 16th and organized the Oregon 
Sportsmen's League. 

As stated in the constitution, "The objects of this organization are to 
promote and further the interests of the sportsmen of the State of Oregon, 
to promote harmony and unity among the sportsmen, to exercise their com- 
bined influence to the end that future legislation and the administration of 

Prominent members of the Oregon Sportsmen's League, Left to right — L. W. 
Humphreys, of Portland, member of Executive Committee; George Put- 
nam, of Medford; A. CrandaU, of Brownsville, Pirst Vice-President, and 
C. A. Riddle, of Riddle, Secretary-Treasurer. 

the Game Department shall be directed toward the improvement and per- 
petuation of the hunting and fishing resources of the state, both by rigidly 
enforced game and fish protection, and by propagation and distribution of 
game and fish; and to encourage sportsmen to organize locally." 

Membership in the Oregon Sportsmen's League consists of clubs or or- 
ganizations of sportsmen throughout the state. Each club which is a mem- 
ber is entitled to one vote at all meetings. The working body of the league 
consists of an executive committee composed of seven members, one from 
each of the seven districts into which the state is divided. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, 
H. B. Van Duzer, of the Multnomah Anglers' Club; First Vice-President, 
A. Crandall, of the Brownsville Eod and Gun Club; Second Vice-President, 

Page five 


Dr. G-. W. Zimmerman, of the Wing, Fin and Fleetfoot Club, of La Grande; 
Secretary-Treasurer, C. A. Riddle, of the Riddle Rod and Gun Club. The 
executive committee is as follows: 

District No. 1, Multnomah County, Lester W. Humphries, of Portland. 

District No. 2, Clatsop, Columbia, Tillamook, Washington and Clack- 
amas Counties, W. W. Goff, Forest Grove. 

District No. 3, Marion, Polk, Benton, Linn, Lane and Lincoln Counties, 
L. G. Lewelling, of Albany. 

District No. 4, Douglas, Josephine, Jackson, Coos and Curry Counties, 
S. C. Bartrum, of Roseburg. 

District No. 5, Crook, Wheeler, Hood River, Wasco, Sherman and Gil- 
liam Counties, L. A. Schanno, of The Dalles. 

District No. 6, Umatilla, Wallowa, Baker, Union, Grant and Morrow 
Counties, G. I. LaDow, of Pendleton. 

District No. 7, Klamath, Lake, Harney and Malheur Counties, E. B. 
Hall, of Klamath Falls. 

The organization was completed at the morning and afternoon sessions 
held at the Convention Hall of the Commercial Club. In the evening a 
banquet was held in the Commercial Club dining room with over one hun- 
dred and fifty sportsmen attending. Speeches were made by members of 
the Fish and Game Commission, officers and prominent sportsmen. Several 
reels of moving pictures were shown illustrating the work of the State 
Game Farm, the fish hatcheries and outdoor life. 

The next annual meeting will be held at Portland on Monday, Decem- 
ber 7, 1914. 


At the annual meeting of the Multnomah Anglers' Club which was held 
Friday evening, March 27th, the following officers were elected for the en- 
suing year: Mr. Lester W. Humphreys, President; Mr. John Gill, Vice-Presi- 
dent; Dr. E. C. McFarland, Secretary-Treasurer. Executive Committee, 
H. B. Van Duzer, George Rae, A. E. Burghduff, Ray Winters and Robt. 


Reports received from various parts of the State, especially in streams 
that have been stocked, show that anglers will have a very favorable season. 
The season for catching trout over six inches opened April 1st and con- 
tinues to October 31st. From October 31st, through the winter, the season 
is open also for angling, but during this period,' the limit is a ten-inch fish. 

Page six 





A general tournament for hunters and anglers was held on March 15th 
on the grounds of the Portland Gun Club at Kenton. Representatives of 
many of the rod and gun clubs of the state were present and took part in 
the various contests. In the trap shooting events, Dr. Thornton took first 
place with a score of 95; P. Holohan registered 96, but this was not counted 
as he is a professional. 

Fly-casting- tournament at grounds of Portland Gun Club at Kenton. Left to 
right — L. "W. Humphreys, winning first place in one-fourth ounce distance 
bait-casting 1 event; Dr. E, C. McFarland, winner second place in one-half 
ounce bait-casting event, and Bay Winters, winner first place in same 

The following are the results of the fly and bait-casting events: 

Fly-casting, long distance, with light tackle — W. F. Backus, first, 92 
feet; W. E. Carlon, 85 feet; J. M. Morris, 76 feet. 

Same event with heavy tackle — Backus, first, 96 feet; Carlon, 92 feet; 
George Rae and Dr. Brock tied for third with 85 feet. 

Dry fly-casting for accuracy — Backus, first, 99 5-15; Rae, 99 3-15; 
Carlon, 99 2-15. 

Accuracy casting — Carlon, first, 98 7-15; Backus, 98 3-15; Rae, 97 9-15. 

Page seven 




Distance bait-casting, y 2 -ounce — Kay Winters, first, 123 1-5 average, 
withwith 154 feet as his longest cast; Dr. E. C. McFarland, 1112-5; J. W. 
Lee, 109 2-5. 

One-fourth ounce distance bait-casting — L. W. Humphreys, first, 74 1-5, 
and the longest was 94 feet; W. C. Block, 71 3-5; Bay Winters, 70 2-5. 

Accuracy bait-casting with one-ounce — J. I. Caldwell, first, 9613-15; 
W. C. Block, 96 2-15; Bay Winters, 95 9-15. 

Walter F. Backus, who took first places in long-distance fly-casting* events 
with both lig-ht and heavy tackle, also fly-casting- event for accuracy. 


On February 28th Mr. J. C. Warner killed a female bear above Myrtle 
Point in Coos County. He found her two cubs when they were very young 
and kept them six days before their eyes were open. Mr. Warner has 
nursed them on a bottle. 

Mr. Alva Addington reports killing a female black bear on February 
14th. He found her two cubs; one was black and the other brown. Their 
eyes were not yet open. Mr. Addington thought they were born about Feb- 
ruary 7th. The old bear was very fat. 

Fage eight 



With Some Descriptions of the Country, Fish and Fishing — Part 5 



Retracing our steps westward along the south shore of the 
Columbia from the junction of Snake River, Walla Walla is the 
first stream we see. It enters the Columbia 200 miles east of 
Portland, a sluggish, shrunken river, like all those emerging 
from the dry plains of the upper country. Many miles back 
from the Columbia these rivers, where they break forth from 
the Blue, Wallowa or Cascade Mountains, carry a flood of cold, 
clear water thrice the volume they pour into the river. Such 
are Yakima and Nachess where they roll from the mountain 
portals out into the thirsty valley — each twice as great in vol- 
ume as the whole Yakima at its outlet. Such, too, is the Walla 
Walla above Milton, and the Umatilla above Pendleton. These 
rivers and their mountain tributaries are noble trout streams. 

The Umatilla is a great river in the Spring, but shrinks to 
small proportions in Autumn. Its main branch, the North Fork, 
comes from the high mountains north and east of Bingham, 
which is a summer resort on the O.-W. R. & N. twenty miles 
above Pendleton. This main branch is splendid fishing after 
the snows have run out. Meacham Creek, the next considerable 
tributary from southward, is a fine Spring and early Summer 
stream. In dry seasons long stretches of Meacham Creek dis- 
appear, but the trout know where the water is — frequently un- 
derground — and keep the stream peopled. 

No streams enter the Umatilla from northward for more 
than fifty miles above its mouth, but west of Pendleton McKay 
and Birch Creek, rising like Meacham Creek in the summit of 
the Blue Mountains, are exceptionally good fishing in the Spring 

Fagre nine 


An angler intending to fish the Umatilla country will do 
well to look up in Pendleton Mr. Charles K. Cranston, a former 
valuable member of the Oregon Fish and Game Commission, 
who is thoroughly acquainted with all the fishing streams of 
Umatilla County, and a naturalist-angler of great experience. 
West of the Umatilla there are no fishing streams save the 
upper John Day — and this a hundred miles back from its mouth 
— until we reach the great Deschutes. 

This is a wonderful river in many respects. Its watershed 
is about equal to that of the Willamette, and its most southern 
source rises twenty-five miles south of Crescent Lake, which is 
the source of the middle or principal branch of the Willamette. 
While the Willamette rises annually in its occasional floods to 
twenty-five feet above its low water mark, Deschutes scarcely 
varies five feet between highest and lowest. Several of the large 
tributaries of Deschutes pour out of the eastern base of the 
Cascades in subterranean rivers that burst forth full-grown from 
their dark mountain tunnels. 

The Deschutes is accessible by railroad to Bend, over 100 
miles from the Columbia. The best fishing is said to be (as 
usual) farther up river, and doubtless this is true, for the river 
is too deep and too big for a trout stream and its tributaries 
yield better sport. Anglers who have gone up toward the upper 
valley and Metolius and other branches, report great catches in 
the mid-summer months. 

Chinook and other salmon run up Deschutes in great num- 
bers, and are caught by fly tackle within a few miles of the 
Columbia. A pair of sportsmen of Hibernian origin, residing at 
Moro, Sherman County, have told me of their success with fine 
tackle — gray flies tied by themselves on hooks not bigger than 
No. 8 — with which they caught large silverside salmon in the 
vicinity of the Free Bridge. 

We have much to learn about the fishing on Deschutes, but 
no river in the state looks more promising. 

''Five-Mile" is a lively stream of Wasco County, entering 
the Columbia five miles east of The Dalles in a fine cataract cut 

Page ten 


deep in the rocky gorge of the basalt cliffs that face the river. 
Its waters are supplied by a number of small streams known 
as Eight, Ten, and Fifteen-Mile Creeks, which rise in the high 
hills between The Dalles and Deschutes River. Dufur is the 
most convenient point for reaching the tributaries of Five-Mile, 
and good hotel accommodations there. Trains on O.-W. R. & N. 
line (accommodation) will stop at Seufert's Station at Five- 
Mile, or the stream may be reached by a short drive to good 
fishing from The Dalles. This stream abounds in small cut- 
throat trout, with some rainbow. 

Mill Creek, entering the Columbia at The Dalles, is good 
fishing above the ranches, and can be easily reached by team or 
afoot. Irrigation takes up most of its lower waters. Like many 
of the streams of the middle-Columbia Basin, the volume of 
water is much greater half way back to the source than at the 
mouth of the stream, the soil, even where there is no use of the 
water for irrigation, absorbing a great part of its flow. 

Mosier Creek, twelve miles west of The Dalles, is a fine 
trout stream, and little use is made of its waters for irrigation. 
Its upper course is among high mountains and is largely in deep 
canyons which require prudence and sure-footedness on the part 
of the fisherman. Mosier is the base of operation, and there is 
good fishing within easy walking distance, or teams can be had 
there. Fine hotel. Spring fishing is best in the above streams. 


The following editorial was printed in the Oregon City Enterprise of 
March 18th, commenting on an item in our last issue: 

"In the organ of the state game and fish commission, which is edited 
by William L. Pinley, and which has for its purpose in life the creation of 
love and admiration for the state commission on the part of the public in 
general (if such a thing were possible), there is the following selection pub- 
lished under the head of 'Clackamas County': 

" 'The new law permitting the catching of trout over ten inches 
the year round seems to meet with the general approval of the 
Clackamas County sportsmen and there was not as much trouble 
with fishermen catching undersized fish as was expected.' 

Fag*e eleven 


"This is the feeling in this county, according to Editor Finley. This is 
the spirit that Editor Finley would like to have in Clackamas but which, as 
nearly as can be learned, does not exist here. Also this is the opinion that 
Editor Finley would like to have the rest of the state think prevails in 
Clackamas County. 

"Sitting back in the office chair (purchased by the state) in his Port- 
land office (rented by the state), Editor Finley has dreamed a dream. He 
has dreamed that the sportsmen of Clackamas County are satisfied with the 
fish law enacted by the last legislature and to make that dream all the 
worse he had published it. In a wild effort to bring the state game and 
fish commission into public favor, Editor Finley has twisted fact and 
dreamed fancy all to increase the waning popularity of the commission. 

"The sportsmen of Clackamas do not favor the recent law passed by 
the legislature, that is at least the majority of them do not. The same law- 
makers who drew up that measure should also have painted a sign in the 
language of the fish, which when translated would read like this: 

Important Notice for Fish! 

Fish under 10 inches beware. Over 10 inches help 

yourself to the bait. 

"When a trout is hooked, jerked out of water, unhooked, and thrown 
back in again, in about nine times out of ten he dies in the water. There 
is no way for the fisherman to keep undersized trout off the hook. Accord- 
ing to law he must throw the little fish back in the water where in almost 
every case they die. 

' ' The clause in the law was nothing but a compromise between the game 
hog and the conserver of game. The former would have open season all 
year so that he could rob the streams in December as well as in August while 
the latter would protect the fish by drastic legislation. The result was a 
bill which provides that no fish under ten inches can be caught between 
October 1st and April 1st and provides that fishing can be done all the year 
round. It is supposed that each side went away satisfied. It is also sup- 
posed that the several legislators winked, in that sly way that legislators 
have, and they thought that for once at least they had sent both sides 
home happy." 


An error was made in the last issue in not printing the name of the 
author, Mr. C. F. Hodge, at the head of the article entitled "The Ruffed 
Grouse. ' ' The photographs used were also supplied by Mr. Hodge. 

Pag"© twelve 



By Stanley G. Jewett. 

The average person is more or less interested in the wild 
creatures of our fields and woods, but few realize the impor- 
tant relation these creatures bear to man. To determine the 
exact value of each species to the farmer, the timberman and the 
sportsman, the Fish and Game Commission, in conjunction with 
the University of Oregon and other educational institutions, has 
undertaken a complete biological survey of the State of Oregon. 

In a great agricultural state like this, a thorough knowl- 
edge of the fauna and flora is of great importance as a basis 
of intelligent control of its game resources, for the wise conser- 
vation of its useful birds and animals and for the destruction of 
the injurious species. In this work the Bureau of Biological 
Survey of the Department of Agriculture will assist, by sending 
one or more of the expert field naturalists to Oregon during the 
summer months to work with the state naturalists. They will 
also help to classify the specimens collected. 

In Oregon there is a wide range of physiographic and cli- 
matic conditions, which favor the production of a great variety 
of agricultural products. There are five well-defined life zones 
within the state, and they can be mapped only by a detailed 
knowledge of the ranges of the native species of birds, mammals 
and plants which inhabit them. The definite mapping of areas 
inhabited by species injurious to agriculture, forestry and stock 
raising is of great importance as a basis for plans for their ex- 
termination. A thorough study of the range and habits of the 
wolves and cougars that kill our deer must be made before they 
can be effectively checked. 

For educational and permanent records, it is of the utmost 
importance to secure a large and complete collection of birds, 
mammals and plants for preservation in one or more museums 
in the state. The fact that some species are already very scarce 

Page thirteen 


and in grave danger of extermination adds to the urgency of 
securing this collection without delay in order that the exact 
status of our native species may be determined. We need a 
complete collection of the young and adult of all the predatory 
species of animals on which bounties are being paid, for refer- 
ence in connection with the bounty system, chiefly with a view 
to prevent payment of fraudulent claims. 

Thorough collections of game birds, mammals and fish 
should also be made for reference in connection with the Fish 
and Game Commission and its work of enforcing the laws. 

The object of the biological survey is not merely to accumu- 
late a mass of mere remains of birds and animals, but to de- 
termine the actual value of each species. The stomachs, as well 
as the skins, of all birds and some of the mammals will be ex- 
amined to determine the amount of good or harm they do. 

The results of a biological survey may be published in sev- 
eral parts. One of these should treat of the mammals of the 
state, with notes on their distribution, habits, and relation to 
agriculture and man's uses in general. A second should deal 
in the same manner with the birds known to occur in the state. 
These should be followed by a full report on the life and crop 
zones, with colored map showing the zones and their subdi- 
visions, with as much detail as possible. Then profitable papers 
could be written on, "The Breeding Grounds and Proper Protec- 
tion of Game Birds in Oregon, " "Migration of Game and Other 
Birds," "The Adequate Protection of Game Animals," "Food 
Habits of Birds in Relation to Agriculture," "Methods of Ex- 
terminating Injurious Animals," and many others of practical 

These reports will be based chiefly upon the data gathered 
by the field naturalists, and the specimens collected will serve 
as vouchers for the accurate determination of species. Photo- 
graphs should be made for illustrating the reports, and data 
gathered for a large number of distribution . maps showing the 
range of the more important species. 

Page fourteen 



(Note. — The following list is not complete, but it is published in the hope 
that the names of other clubs and their officers will be sent in, so we may 
have on file a complete roster of sportsmen's organizations in this state. — 


Baker Rod & Gun Club, Baker. Chas. P. Murphy, President. H. J. 
'Gorman, Secretary. 

Cornucopia Rod & Gun Club, Cornucopia. C. F. Buxton, President. Jim 
Cooley, Secretary. 


Corvallis Rod & Gun Club, Corvallis. M. M. Long, President. H. L. 
Winkley, Secretary. 


Rod & Gun Club, Estacada. W. A. Heylman, Secretary. 
Oregon City Rod & Gun Club. Tom Myers, President. 


Seaside Rod & Gun Club, Bandon. J. L. Kronenburg, President. S. C. 
Endicott, Secretary. 

Coquille Rod & Gun Club. A. J. Sherwood, President. Claude Moon, 


Seaside Rod & Gun Club. Bert Godfrey, President. 


Riddle Elk Supporting Rod & Gun Club, Riddle. L. N. Emerson, Presi- 
dent. C. A. Riddle, Secretary. 

Douglas County Game Protective Association, Roseburg. R. E. Smith, 
President. T. A. Raffety, Secretary. 

Tiller Game Protective Association, Tiller. R. W. Thomason, Presi- 
dent. J. W. Wright, Secretary. 

Oakland Game Protective Game Association. Roy Miller, President. 
Dr. W. C. Gilmour, "Vice-President. Dr. E. J. Wainscott, Secretary. 

Poncalla Game Protective Association. H. S. Stearns, President. J. E. 
Clark, Vice-President. Harry Brown, Secretary and Treasurer. 


Arlington Rod & Gun Club, Arlington. A. Wheelhouse, President. 
Francis Clark, Secretary. 


Burns Rod & Gun Club, Burns. Dr. C. C. Griffith, President. Archie 
McGowan, Secretary. 

Page fifteen 



Hood Eiver Commercial Club, Hood Eiver. Wm. M. Stewart, Chairman 
Game Committee. 


Eogue Eiver Fish Protective Association, Medford. W. F. Isaacs, Pres- 
ident. Dr. L. Bundy, Secretary. 

Medford Eod & Gun Club, Medford. Dr. C. E. Seely, President. T. E. 
Daniels, Secretary. 

Talent Eod & Gun Club, Talent. G. W. Ager, Secretary. H. L. Gleim, 

Ashland Eod & Gun Club. H. H. Hosier, Secretary. 


Grants Pass Gun Club, Grants Pass. S. E. Halverson, President. A. O 
Goettsche, Secretary. 

Game & Fish Protective Association of Josephine County. C. A. Sidler, 
President. W. B. Sherman, Secretary. 


Klamath Sportsman Association. C. I. Eoberts, President. W. O 
Smith, Secretary. 


Lane County Fish & Game Protective Association, Eugene. Y. D. Henp 
ill, President. J. W. Hobbs, Secretary. 

Cottage Grove Eod & Gun Club, Elvert Bede, President. David Griggs 


Goose Lake Gun Club, Lakeview. A. L. Thornton, President. Harry 
Bailey, Secretary. 

Albany Gun Club, Albany. L. P. Tracy, Secretary. 
Eod & Gun Club, Brownsville. W. J. Moore, Secretary. A. Crandall, 


Eod & Gun Club, Salem. J. E. Crowe, President. 

Silverton Eod & Gun Club, Silverton. 0. E. Thompson, President. H. E. 
Hodges, Secretary. 


Multnomah Anglers' Club. Lester W. Humphreys, President. E. C. Mc- 
Farland, Secretary. 

Portland Gun Club. H. W. Metzger, President, J. A. Addleman, Sec- 
retary and Treasurer. 

Page sixteen 



Rufus Rod & Gun Club, Rufus. Anson Tom, President. C. H. Linde- 
man, Secretary. 


Umatilla County Fish & Game Association, Pendleton. W. N. Mat- 
lock, President. R. W. Fletcher, Secretary. 

Camas Prairie Game Protective Association, Ukiah. I. R. Laurance, 
President. W. W. Allison, Secretary. 

Milton Rod & Gun Club, Milton. Geo. Cole, President. H. A. Wil- 
liams, Secretary. 

Pilot Rock Commercial Club. L. A. Scharpf and M. D. Orange, 


Wing, Fin and Fleetfoot Club, La Grande. Dr. G. W. Zimmerman, 
President. A. A. Wenzel, Secretary. 


Rod & Gun Club, Dufur. W. A. Short, President. T. C. Queen, Sec- 


Hillsboro Rod & Gun Club, Hillsboro. Wm. Nelson, President. 


The town of Echo has been the Mecca of Umatilla County anglers since 
the middle of March. It is estimated that during the last sixteen days of 
the month close to 500 land-locked steelheads were taken from the govern- 
ment canal which supplies the Cold Springs Reservoir with water. While 
these fish ranged in length from fifteen to twenty-one inches the greater 
number were about eighteen inches and weighed close to two pounds each. 
One disappointing feature of the sport to many was the fact that these fish 
would not rise to a fly. In order to catch them the anglers were compelled 
to resort to the use of all manner of bait. 

The run of these fish in the canal is due to the fact that when the ditch 
was first completed and water turned in, five years ago, it was not equipped 
with a screen. The reservoir was therefore filled with fish as well as water, 
and among the fish was a large number of young steelheads on their first 
pilgrimage to the sea. Not being able to escape from the reservoir they 
grew to maturity there and when the reservoir was filled this spring the 
mature fish immediately began ascending the canal in fulfillment of their 
natural instinct to go to the headwaters of the stream to spawn. 

Fagre seventeen 






Deputy Game Warden Adams, sta- 
tioned at Agness, Oregon, reports 
that deer have wintered very well 
in that part of the state, owing to 
the large crop of acorns. 

Silver gray squirrels are on the 
increase in that section. There were 
more last winter than ever before. 
Some complaint has been made that 
these squirrels destroy a certain 
amount of timber in some sections 
by gnawing the bark and girdling 
young pines. Evidence shows that 
this is not done by squirrels. 


The Prineville Review says: Bud 
Hinton, who has been trapping up 
in the Paulina country during the 
past four months came into town 
Monday with the pelts he has col- 
lected during the winter. So far he 
has caught seventy coyotes and 
thirty-three bobcats, for which he 
received a bounty of $171, and the 
State Board of Fish and Game Com- 
missioners will pay an additional 
bounty of one dollar on the first 
of March for all bobcats killed 
since October. His total bounty will 
amount to the sum of $204, be- 
sides what he gets for the furs, and 
as they are all in their prime con- 
dition, this will be no small amount. 


Mr. A. S. Hubbard, of Ashland, 
reports that during the winter there 
were twenty-one panthers, about 200 
bobcats and about the same num- 

ber of coyotes killed in Jackson 

# * * 

Mr. Clyde Walker, of Gold Hill, 
caught forty-four trout from eight 
inches up a few days ago in Rogue 
River. He was not gone more than 
three hours. Most of the fish were 
caught with a March Brown fly. 
This shows that there is good fish- 
ing in the Rogue in that locality. 


Fishing has been exceptionally 
good in Link River during the past 
month. This river is about a mile 
long and connects Upper Klamath 
Lake with Lake Ewauna and is 
within the city limits of Klamath 
Falls. The trout average from two 
to five pounds, although some are 
caught weighing as much as twelve 

Parties returning from Spencer 
Creek, eighteen miles from Klamath 
Falls, report large catches of rain- 
bow trout. While fishing is excep- 
tionally good in Spencer Creek at 
this time, the rainbows are in 
spawning condition, and a female 
that is caught at this season when 
full of eggs is not good for food, 
nor is the taking of the fish at this 
season sportsmanlike. It is always 
best to protect fish on their spawn- 
ing ground and give them every op- 
portunity to reproduce, either natur- 
ally or artificially. 


Mr. William LaSater, of Silver 

Page eighteen 




Lake, reports that Canada geese, or 
''honkers," were paired off the 
latter part of January and in early 
February. On March 15th he saw 
several nests containing from one 
to three eggs on an island at the 
mouth of Ana River. 


Mr. Overton Dowell, Jr., of Mer- 
cer, says that ruffed grouse are in- 
creasing in that locality, probably 
owing to the fact that bob cats are 
not so numerous as in past years. 
He has not noticed any increase in 
sooty or blue grouse and mountain 

"It has been several years since 

I have heard of any fisher being 

caught by trappers in this section. 

Otter were formerly numerous; now 

there is practically no sign of them. 

If something is not done soon for 

preventing these animals being 

trapped, they will be gone. Eight 

or ten years ago, we used to catch 

eight to twelve otters each season 

on Mercer Lake. During the past 

winter but one otter was known to 

visit this lake." 

* * # 

Harley Kain and Will McMahon 
killed a cougar on Mt. June March 
4th. She had two kittens about the 
size of bobcats. They had already 
been weaned. The old cougar ran 
for two and a half miles in front 
of the hounds before treeing. The 
men had to stay out all night and 
sleep in the snow before they fin- 
ally got the big cat. 
. # * * 

On March 15th, Dr. Bull floated 
down the Mackenzie in a boat from 

a point above Vida. In a distance 
of three miles, he caught twenty- 
five rainbows, the smallest of which 
was eleven inches and the largest 
sixteen inches. He used Blue Up- 
right and March Brown flies. 
* * * 

Mr. E. C. Hills, of Eugene, re- 
ports the following catches of fur- 
bearing animals that were brought 
in during the early part of March. 
Mr. Alva Addington caught six 
cougar, twenty-one bobcats, one 
wolf, five coons, four martens, 
twenty skunks. Mr. John Vaughan 
captured two cougars, seven bob- 
cats, three coons, two fishers, two 
martens, twenty-eight civet cats. 
Mr. Paddock brought in fourteen 
bobcats, one coyote, three mink, 
five skunks, five fishers, twenty 
martens, five (white) weasels, fifty- 
five civet cats. 

Each of these trappers claims 
that the season for trapping fur- 
bearing animals should be changed. 
They think that the November fur 
is not prime and that animals 
caught in March are in much finer 
condition. At present the open 
season for trapping otter, mink, 
fisher, marten and muskrat is from 
November 1st to February 28th. 
They believe the season should be 
from January 1st to March 31st. 


Mr. J. Hanlon, of Ona, killed 
twenty bobcats during the past 
winter. Mr. Otern, who lives in the 
Siletz country, killed ten bobcats. 
F. H. Kohler and W. H. Allen, who 
live in the same district, brought in 

Page nineteen 




the hides of one bobcat, three mar- 
ten, two mink and seven skunks. 
* # * 

Mr. J. J. Gatens, of Newport, re- 
ports that bounty was paid on 192 
bobcats, four coyotes and one wolf 
during the year 1913. It is very 
likely that the wolf upon which 
bounty was paid was a large coyote. 
At present there are no records of 
wolves being found in Lincoln 

Mr. Vince Pattick, of Browns- 
ville, Oregon, while on a trapping 
trip in the mountains up the Cala- 
pooia ran acrcss a big gray wolf. 
His dog made an attack on the wolf 
but before Mr. Pattick could get in 
a position to kill the wolf it had 
killed the dog. Mr. Pattick set his 
traps and later caught two large 
female wolves. 

Mr. Harry Abele, of Portland, was 
the first man who qualified for the 
Salmon Club of Oregon which was 
recently organized. The object of 
this club is to encourage a higher 
class of sportsmanship in angling 
for salmon. Mr. Abele caught a 
chinook at Oregon City weighing 
twenty pounds and four ounces, 
landing the fish in thirty minutes 
with a five and a half ounce rod and 
a No. 9 thread. Hereafter he is 
entitled to wear the bronze button 
of the club. To win a silver button 
one must land a thirty-pound sal- 
mon, and for a gold button, a forty- 
pound salmon, with light tackle of 
specified weight. 


The Wing, Fin and Fleetfoot Club 
of La Grande has elected the fol- 
lowing officers: Dr. G. W. Zim- 
merman, president; J. T. William- 
son, vice-president; A. A Wenzel, 
secretary; Chas. E. Harding, treas- 
urer. The executive board is Chas. 
B. Orai, P. A. Foley, J. M. Kohl, 
Walter Zweifel and S. D. Crow. 
After the business of the club was 
transacted there was a smoker and 
speeches by members and visitors. 
One of the interesting things before 
the organization was the awarding 
of the prize for the greatest num- 
ber of magpies killed by any mem- 
ber of the club during the year. 
Mr. Walter Zweifel was awarded 
this prize. A five dollar gold piece 
awarded by Mr. August J. Stange 
was the reward. Mr. Zweifel killed 
forty magpies in one day, bringing 
in the heads to be counted by the 


The herd of elk which was intro- 
duced into the Wallowa Forest Re- 
serve has increased considerably 
during the past season. There are 
eight yearlings at the present time. 
In 1912 a herd of fifteen elk was 
introduced, but five of these died 
during the winter on account of in- 
juries received in capturing. Four 
of these were cows and one bull — 
all animals three years old, or over. 
In 1913 a herd of fifteen was in- 
troduced, one of which escaped. The 
herd has also been increased by the 
addition of one or two wild elk 
ranging in that section. 

Page twenty 




Sportsman's Platform 

-rni y t in 

Keep Oregon Streams and Rivers 
Free From Pollution 

A pure spring or stream of water is a val- 
uable asset to the State and her citizens. 
The streams belong to all the people and not 
to any one section. 

No mill or factory has a right to dump 
its waste into the river. No city or town in 
the State has a right to empty its sewage 
into a stream that flows past its door. This 
does not dispose of the city's filth. It trans- 
fers it from one place to another, making the 
water unfit for use further down stream. 
This spreads disease to fish and to people. 
It is wrong legally and morally. 

Use your influence to get a statute passed 
like the " Deschutes River Law" to apply to 
every stream or river m the State. Do it 
before it is too late. Many of our most beau- 
tiful streams are being transformed into 
public sewers. 


MAR 24 1917 



MAY 1914 




By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II ] 

5c a copy — 50c a year 

[ Number 5 

! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ] 1 1 U 1 1 1 1 1 1 M I ! I > I r 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 > 1 1 1 1 1 1 . 



The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II MAY 1914 Number 5 


The first symptoms of the fishing fever appear about the 
end of March or the first week or two in April whenever the 
clouds clear away for a few days and the sun makes the buds 
break. The pulse beats faster and the temperature is likely to 
run higher by the last of April or the first of May. 

This intermittent fever seems to be more virulent in the 
blood of the light-rod fly artist than in the sluggish bait fisher- 
man. There is a class of winter fishermen, slow and thick- 
blooded, who become immune by the constant application of the 
vile-smelling oil of the salmon egg. But who wants to use a 
medicine that is worse than the malady? 

As age creeps upon us all, it is not fitting that we speak 
harshly of him who sits quietly above the still water and drops 
in his bait contentedly, for in his younger days he may have had 
innumerable attacks before he got beyond the danger line. Yet 
in his placidity he may innoculate others with the unquenchable 

Spring comes unfailingly. If one is ever to taste at the 
fountain of perpetual youth, he will have to forget his business 
cares and try whipping the clear streams where the rapids flash. 
He must feel his mind grow keen for the sport. He must feel 
his heart pound heavier as the line buzzes through the guides. 


Each spring the migratory schools of Chinooks enter the 
Columbia and make for the headwaters to spawn. The Falls of 
the Willamette at Oregon City are known far and wide in April 
and May as a rendezvous for anglers. No place in the West is 
better known for Chinook fishing and no place has a better record 
of successful sport from the angler's standpoint. 

Fag-e one 

•tUnltMI)llllltlllli<tlllllllllIlllllill<IMIIIIII<IIIIIIIIIIIIIllllllMlllllill1Illllllllllllll'IIIIMIIIIIllltllllllllllllnlllllllllll.l|lf<<ll<I>Mllllll|[|llll llllllll>ftMIIIICIIIIIItlllMllll>ttlltlllll..<ltllllllllll<llllllllUIIIIIII 


f<llllllllllllllllllllltlHlllinillllMltllllMI(llt<lllllllllllinilllllMIMIdlllllllHUntltllitflllIlltllllllllllllll1llllllllllllllilllll It ■■miiimiiiimiiiimmi lilt Miiiiiiion u vitiiiiuiiaiiiiitiiiniaam. 

The spring run of Chinook salmon enters the Columbia River 
in February and March. It is the finest salmon that swims. The 
flesh is bright pink in color and stored full of fat. The Chinook 
is a salt water fish and takes no food from the time it enters fresh 
water. The stomach gradually grows smaller until it literally 
shrivels up. The fat that is stored up in salt water is the fuel of 
the body during the long migration to the headwaters. 

Although the Chinook takes no food in fresh water, yet it is 
a surprising fact that a large number of these fish are caught by 
trolling. No one knows just why the salmon below the falls at 
Oregon City takes a whirling spinner. Some people think the 
fish strikes merely from habit or as reflex action, while others 
think that the fish gathered in large numbers below the falls are 
annoyed and strike in the spirit of anger. 

Landing- a Salmon at Jennings Loclg-e, two miles below the Falls 

at Oregon City 


Mr. Edmund Eggers, who shot and killed J. Bush on April 1st 
on Sixes River, in Curry County, has been indicted by the Grand 
Jury. Eggers was violating the law by hunting deer out of sea- 
son and claims he mistook Mr. Bush for a deer. 

On February 1st, George L. Mayer shot Willard Isenhart, 
also in Curry County, claiming that he mistook him for a wildcat. 

Page two 




Mayer was also indicted by the Grand Jury and is now in the 
Curry County jail awaiting trial. 

Both Eggers and Mayer are held under $2,000 bonds, which 
they have not been able to furnish. 

Upon hearing of these cases, a telegram was sent to County 
Attorney Meredith, of Wedderbum, by the Fish and Game Com- 
mission asking that every effort be made to prosecute the mur- 
derers of these men. We have received a note to the following 
effect from Mr. Meredith: 

"I am very glad to have the backing of your Department in 
the prosecution of these cases. I ordered the arrest of both Mayer 
and Eggers. I intend to make an example of these fellows, if 
possible, so that every one who goes hunting in Curry County will 
know that if he shoots a man for a deer the penitentiary awaits 
him. ,, 


Five thousand dollars has been added to the Agricultural 
Appropriation Bill which is now before the Senate for consid- 
eration. This amount is to defray the expenses of a biological 
survey of the state of Oregon. This work was planned several 
months ago by. the Bureau of Biological Survey of the United 
States Department of Agriculture in co-operation with the Ore- 
gon Fish and Game Commission. 

There is also an item of fifty thousand dollars in the same 
bill to provide funds for enforcing the Federal migratory bird 
law, which went into effect during the fall of 1913. At the pres- 
ent time it is uncertain whether this latter amount will be appro- 
priated, since certain members of the Senate are very much op- 
posed to it. Since the Federal Government has taken over the 
protection of migratory birds, it will be necessary to provide of- 
ficers to enforce the law, or there will be little respect for it. 


In certain sections of the state there has been considerable complaint 
against the law which permits winter fishing. The Bend Bulletin for April 
1st is not at all satisfied with the law permitting fishing all the year in the 
Deschutes, providing the fish are over ten inches. It comments as follows: 

Page three 




"The law, as might be expected, is being abused scandalously. The 
summer months are time enough for fishing. Fish caught now are full of 
eggs. A couple of seasons more of this and we shall have no trout left. 

"The local fish and game club and papers and sportsmen of central 
Oregon should combine in petitioning a repeal of this law so far as it affects 
the much-fished Deschutes." 


Mr. C. K. Cranston, of Pendleton, Oregon, has furnished a very inter- 
esting report in regard to the trout that have been planted in Umatilla 
County. He says: 

"I believe the stock of Rainbow trout in Umatilla and its tributaries 
is as good as I have ever known it within the past seventeen years. I have 
been a very frequent angler on these streams during that period. 

"The only non-native species supplied has been Eastern Brook trout. 
Plantings have been made for four successive years. This species has been 
placed in all of the streams which were considered suitable. From personal 
investigation and from inquiries which I have made continually from anglers 
and others, it seems the result, as far as Eastern Brook trout are concerned, 
is rather disappointing. Practically no reports of the presence of Eastern 
Brook trout have reached me from observers along the Umatilla River 
except that they have occasionally been found in some of the side channels 
or sloughs separate from the main channel of the river. A number of 
anglers report the taking of an occasional one of these fish, some of which 
have been as large as one pound, or even a little better, but there is no 
indication that the fish have increased to any extent, or that they are 
even holding their own. A small planting made in Bear Creek seems to 
have disappeared altogether. I have no reports of any having been seen 
in McKay or Birch Creeks. 

"The only really hopeful result of our efforts is from two plantings 
made in Camas Creek. Most of the fry for this stream were put in a small 
stream on the farm of Frank Hilbert, near Ukiah, Oregon. The first season 
following the planting of the fry in this stream it was reported to me that 
they were very numerous, and that autumn a further report came in that 
they were spawning. Since this I have had numerous reports that brook 
trout of all sizes, up to better than one pound in weight, are abundant, 
and, furthermore, that they are gradually working down into the main 
channel of Camas Creek. 

"Camas Creek throughout much of its course is more placid than the 
average mountain stream of this section. The success in this stream rather 
than in others has strengthened my opinion that the meandering meadow 
streams are better adapted to Eastern Brook trout than the rough, rapid 

Pag* four 



i»M««iiMiiiHmii«iniiiiniimniiiimiiiiMiiii«iim»iiiiiiiiMHiiiimiiiiiiiMtiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimm<HHi«iiiiiiiHiHiii«i imiMiimimmiiiHiMiMimMiumiiiiiiuiiiiHiiiuiiimiciiiiiiiimmMiu* 


By J. W. Hobbs. 

There has been considerable interest and discussion in the papers by 
the sportsmen throughout the state lately as to changing the season for 
duck shooting, and especially as to the best season for the Willamette Valley 
sportsmen. I will have to take issue with my brother sportsmen of Albany, 
who seem to want to extend the season to shoot and not begin until Novem- 
ber 15th. They recommend this, claiming that the birds do not come down 
from the north until this time. 

I will say that I have for the last seven years been a member of a club 
in Eugene, which is forty-three miles farther south than Albany, which has 
a duck shooting preserve on the Long Tom and Coyote Creeks, some ten 
miles west of Eugene, and I have kept a complete record of the number of 
ducks shot on this preserve for the past seven seasons. The place we have is 
a low, swampy marsh, between the two creeks. Few if any ducks are raised 
there, other than a few wook ducks and perhaps a few mallards; but this is 
a natural stopping place for them on their flight south in the fall. The club 
is composed of from six to seven members, and the shooting is done two 
days in the week, on Sundays and mid-week, but mostly on Sundays. The 
record kept for the past seven years is much the same as the records of the 
other clubs in this vicinity. It is as follows: 

Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Totals 

Law prohibited Feb. shooting 
1 1 n n tt 

11 " shooting after Feb. 15 

tl " shooting after Jan. 15 

Totals ..630 2611 2139 1167 288 6835 

In the October months most of the birds were shot in the latter half of 
the month. The poor showing of the record for October the last season was 
on account of the very late season, and the law prohibiting the shooting of 
wood ducks. The entire month of November each year has been good; in 
fact, November is the best month by far we have here, showing that our 
Albany brothers are mistaken when they say that the southern flight does 
not commence until later. December is our next best month and is always 
good. January is not nearly so good as November or December, with Feb- 
ruary rather poor. This last season I will admit was an exception, being a 
very warm and late season, and the birds did not come down until much 
later than usual. Yet November again, as usual, was the best month of the 
season. In 1912 they came down early, and October was a good month. I 

Pag* f iv» 


.. 22 




. . . 










.. 47 














.. 24 














.. 32 





x H E 

O E E G O N 


think our pares 1 aw from October 1st to January loth very good, and do 
not think it — ~r to make a later season than from October loth r: 7 7 
iwar^ 1st ~hich might be a little better for the Willamette Vallev sports- 
men than it is now. and gi r the zixds proper protection in the Siring. 

iz -~ei: mi: ._ - - _ _ - : _ fLi^'ar 

••There" 5 one bad fault that gets ns alL whatever be our lot: 'tis the 

bMb^ ii the I.n^hag for the £E we haven't got. The man on top 

may envy, sore, the man who's underneath: while the rich man has the 
iinr.7. ::= -_t ; ; :.i has ::i re: _■ :iz'-~z~ a = ra-v rake 

their flight, and nanght compares today with the girl we didn't marry and 
the fish that eot awav. " — ML, L. Marsh in Becreation and Outdoor World 

':: :_;:::>= =.: VT_ll3.— erre T-.'.s 

Mr. B, G 

■j—rrzZZZ-g Lar 

_ : - t - - : =_ a > 
z e a ~ e r i : r 1 : 
wierler _ :r 
hair ■::" ire 
. 1 :-ai ;•: 
aai mt-inz 

:r I: :a:i:a :: 


^arson, of the senior class in the University of Oregon, is 

1 - the habits and jtistribwtiai of the beaver of Oregon. He 

e a map of Oregon showing where the principal colonies of 

eated, he— maaj heaves there are at the present time, and 

ire ia::cii::a,z :r ie:rea = i^: la -;a: ^::i-::t: :t'::- ; e_ : _ 

= ---r :"-— -- ham ~--- t-ti: :r ----. :m-;: —ill :e —-—::- 

- ■- ■ - ; - -_ - - _ . - --. ~ ns made concerning The prote : " . 1 

vreeiate any information concerning the habits 
ies or information eonceming the as 

- . _ . — 

P»r» «ix 



Data on Range and Habits Collected by the Game Department 

During the Past Season 


From data now avaflabl- . .- : ~_. - . 

Timber Wolf - . ^— ._ ' . -. .. -_ ' - ■_- — --~ 


north to Jackson County on the south. Ni 

famed of tkia ----- - ekfte . aseade 

Mountains west _ ._ The _" _ _ 

timber wolf is the only species of true — "_: : _ -^ 

.::;! It should nevei - ; zz .— . - — i:-: 

ranges over the entire ^ te 

Mr. F. N. Robeson. : . . - ^ b - 

trapped tL - - : - - - w - luring - _ . and has seem 

■ : od many mo: e signs : - __ _ v. - : i - ." ~ . . i _ 2 

River in Clackamas County. Mr. Robeson eangfr - _ - wf ires in 
traps, using four traps : - -'. During 1 Eke sarfj part : .":- 
"rzi'i-rr :-- . : ~ ~~---- — - 

down to the river. These tracks TJwwrd i ffe g — — . - - . _ 
very much as dogs do: running dtse - -. ;_ :le :— t 

and at other times spreading apart afcowt tii— yards. T&e woi _ -s 
disappeared from that locality : r about five day= : .. - _ . - - . _ - . 
Mr. Robeson had his traps set and - wifi mowHUm 

He caught the male wolf Bra* ind a few 
female in the same trap, baited with tfce sane meat. One 
wolves carried the trap-drag, which was a heavy stick about three 
inches in diameter and seven and a half feet long, for nearly a 
mile. On February 28th. Mr. Robeson eang_ ^ z 

Si ::ion 33. Townsh r ^onth Eange 4 East, which was only a 
short distance from where he caught the : hn Has "volf 

was caught in a act wnicn were baited witl 

chunks of bob-cat and coyote me ; I 

7 U": 




On February 25th, 1914, Mr. N. W. McMillen, of Cazadero, 
caught a large, black timber wolf near Three Links camp on the 
Clackamas River, twenty-four miles above Cazadero. In making 
a set for this wolf, Mr. McMillen tied the body of a rabbit about 
six feet up in a fir tree and placed two traps close together under 
it. One of these traps was well concealed, while the other was left 
partially exposed, and, of course, the concealed trap was the one 
that caught the wolf. The bait was hung in such a way that the 
wolf in jumping at it would cause it to swing in the air, thereby 
making it difficult for him to get a firm hold. Number 14 
off -set jaw Newhouse traps were used. On March 16th a large 
female wolf was caught in the same trap, at the same set and with 
the same bait. The first wolf was a male, and this was probably 
a pair that had been hunting in that locality. Mr. McMillen esti- 
mates that there are about a dozen wolves that range over the 
territory in the vicinity of his winter camp, about twenty-five 
miles above Cazadero on the Clackamas River. During the winter 
he found the remains of a deer that had evidently been killed by 
wolves. The meat was entirely gone, nothing remaining but the 
bones and hide. 

Mr. W. L. Tison and brother, who live ten miles above Tiller, 
on Elk Creek, poisoned three wolves on February 15th. A band 
of wolves had killed about a dozen goats belonging to Mr. Jaques. 
Some of the meat was not eaten and this was poisoned with 
strychnine. The wolves returned a few days later and ate the 
meat. Mr. Tison and his brother followed the wolf tracks for 
half a mile and found where three of the wolves had died. They 
think there were two or three more wolves that got away. 

, The Northwestern timber wolf was first described by Town- 
send in the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, in 1850, from a specimen killed near Van- 
couver, Clarke County, Washington. There is a skull of one of 
these wolves in the U. S. National Museum at Washington that 
was taken from a wolf killed on the shores of Puget Sound a good 
many years ago. This skull, so far as known, is the only specimen 
of the Northwestern wolf in any museum outside of Oregon. 

Pag-e eight 

I ttiiUi'ttiUHiunitmn ntm in immumttiuuHUMH 






The skin of an adult Northwestern timber wolf measures 
about six feet from nose to tip of tail; the nose pad is from one 
and a quarter to one and three-quarter inches wide ; the heel pad 
is from one and a half to two inches in width and the upper canine 
teeth are about one-half inch in diameter at the base. Several 
wolves killed in the Cascade Mountains show a wide range of 
coloration, from the black phase, which is a shiny black on the 
back and dusky on the under parts, to the lighter phase, which is 

ilk. 9 Z ^f^^SSBL 


. - ■' 




'■., *..'■'■ f ■ ., ■" 't ' ■ ! 

Photograph by N. W. McMillen 

Northwestern Timber Wolf trapped on the headwaters of the 

Clackamas River 

yellowish brown with black-tipped hairs. These black-tipped 
hairs are thickest on the back, sometimes giving the animal the 
appearance of being solid black on the back. The under parts of 
the light specimens vary from dirty- white to cream color. The 
tail is long and bushy with a black tip. The claws, although no 
longer than a coyote's, are much thicker and heavier built. 

Owing to the wide variation of color in the wolves, they are 
known locally under several names, as "Black Wolf," "Gray 
Wolf" and "Timber Wolf," but there is only one species known 

Page nine 



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to occur in the state. Wolves are very destructive to domestic 
animals as well as game, so the Fish and Game Commission has 
offered a bounty of $20 in addition to the $5 state bounty on 
each wolf killed. This bounty is often earned by homesteaders in 
isolated parts of the state, and assists them in their first years' 
settlement while developing their lands. 

These wolves are probably the most difficult to kill of all 
the predatory animals in Oregon. They are very wary and can- 
not be hunted successfully with dogs. Several cases are recorded 
where wolves have turned on dogs and killed them. Mr. George 
Kelly has, on three occasions, lost valuable "varmint" dogs by 
having them trail wolves. 

In some places wolf bounties have been paid on coyotes, and 
in order to guard against this, the Fish and Game Commis- 
sion has secured several skins and skulls showing the variation in 
color and the great difference in size of skulls of the wolf and 

The following table shows the number of wolves on which 
bounty has been claimed from October 1, 1913, to April 27, 1914 : 

Name of Hunter No. Killed Locality Where Killed Date When Killed 

B. C. Palmer '. 1 Molalla Eiver Dec. 17, 1913 

Clackamas Co. 
N. W. McMillen 2 30 miles above Cazadero. .Feb. 25, 1914 

Clackamas Co. Mch. 16, 1914 
Chas. Durgin 2 Near Tiller March, 1914 

Douglas Co. Nov. 30, 1913 

F. N. Eobeson 3 Molalla Eiver Two— Nov. 1, 1913 

Clackamas Co. Feb. 28, 1914 

I. M. Elliott 2 Foster, Linn Co Dec. 28, 1913 

J. W. Fox 4 Glide, Douglas Co Feb., 1914 

Three— March 14, 1914 
L. Emerson 1 Tiller, Douglas Co Oct. 1, 1913 

C. H. Peelor 1 Butte Falls, Jackson Co 1914 

A. B. Addington 1 Oakridge, Lane Co Feb. 10, 1914 

W. L. Tison 3 Drew, Douglas Co . Three — Feb. 15, 1914 

B. E. Paddock 2 Sweet Home, Linn Co.. .Presented for 

bounty at Salem, March 14, 1914 

C. K. Compp 3 Lane Co Presented for 

bounty at Salem, April, 1914 

The Oregon Sportsman will appreciate additional information 
regarding wolves from hunters and sportsmen throughout the 

Page ten 

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With Some Descriptions of the Country, Fish and Fishing— Part 6 



This grand stream sometimes yields splendid trout, and on 
some of its tributaries good fishing may be had all summer. The 
main river is not worth much for fly fishing after the snows of Mt. 
Hood begin to melt, as the glaciers pour out great quantities of silt 
which makes the water milky in appearance. The smaller and 
lower tributaries are clear, and good fishing; and often, after 
frosts have checked glacial streams, there is good fishing on the 
main river. Especially in fall, the lower part of the river is 
often abundant in large sea-trout returning to spawn. 

This river is a very swift, powerful stream, and its banks in 
most places are steep cliffs of basalt, so there are not many 
places where its waters can be reached without difficulty and 
even danger. Half way back to Mount Hood the country is 
broken and the streams of the "Middle Valley' ' are more acces- 
sible. Hood River, Dee and Mt. Hood P. 0. are good stopping 

Cutthroat, rainbow and Dolly Varden trout abound in these 
waters, the latter reaching very large size. 

Lost Lake, on the northwestern shoulder of Mt. Hood, 
abounds in trout, but they feed so plentifully upon newts, or 
"water-dogs," that they are not often taken by the fly fisherman, 
and never unless a favoring breeze ruffles its waters. One must 
camp here, and can reach the lake by a drive of about thirty miles 
from Hood River. The creek flowing out of Lost Lake is also 
fine fishing. 

Eagle Creek, on the eastern boundary of Multnomah County 
and in the heart of the gorge of the Columbia, is a glorious 
stream, but almost impossible for the fisherman. A rough trail 

Page eleven 




climbs the steep mountains from its mouth to its source, which 
is only four miles back, and 4,000 feet above the Columbia. This 
ice-cold, crystal stream is a river of falls and boiling rapids, and 
"looks good," but fish of "any size" do not inhabit such waters. 
They are too cold and violent for the production of large trout. 

Tanner Creek at Bonneville is now occupied by the great 
state hatchery and rearing ponds, and though the stream is a 
delight, and once was good fishing, the best reason for a fisher- 
man's interest now is in the opportunity for seeing and studying 
the operation of spawning, hatching and rearing of the millions 
of salmon and trout there. Every possible opportunity is given 
visitors to see the plant, and the writer recommends every angler 
within reach of Bonneville to visit the station once a year at 
least. A good dinner can be had at the restaurant at the sta- 
tion and the train west at 4 brings one to Portland before 
6 P. M. 

The beautiful torrents and cataracts west of Bonneville are 
peopled with little trout wherever the waters rest long enough 
for them to abide, but are not suitable for fishing. 


Sandy River, emerging from the western slopes of the Cas- 
cades-, is poor fishing for the reason given in the case of Hood 
River. It receives several glacial streams and is charged with 
milky sediment most of the summer. But in late fall and winter 
it offers grand sport in the steelhead trout which ascend its 
waters in great numbers. From November till March the stream 
is the favorite of many of Portland's experts. Walter Backus is 
one of the best and luckiest of these, and will give any inquirers 
reliable information regarding tackle and all other questions. 
The steelhead trout in these icy waters is the gamest of our fish, 
and is taken up to twenty pounds. The stream is reached by 
the Mount Hood electric line, by O.-W. R. & N. to Troutdale and 
from Sandy P. 0. via Estacada electric line and stage or team 
from Boring. A good hotel will be found here, also at Troutdale. 

Several important tributaries of Sandy are famous trout 
streams. These are mostly clear, ideal streams of large size, 

Fag* tw#r*e 

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IIJtllllllltllll»llllllttllMlllfnnlllll«lllllllll«IMHIIMMIIMItltMllltlttiIIMIIflllllllIllMlttllllltlnillllll»tlllll«lllltllllllflHtil»lMIHmH«mnim««HHHMHMHHIHIHHHim ttlMllllMlltiUIIIHMUalUMlliitiiina 

rapid but not too difficult for pleasant fishing. Bull Run is one 
of these, coining from Bull Run Lake, high up in the Cascades. 
The south fork of Bull Run is a delightful stream and easy fly 
fishing, but it is rather a toilsome walk from Aschoff's (a 
charming place to stay), on the Barlow road, accessible by auto- 
stage all summer. 

Ray Davis related to me recently an experience on ''Little 
Sandy," as the south fork of Bull Run is sometimes called. He 
left Salmon Post Office early one morning in August, 1913, and 
tramped through the forest and mountains nearly five hours, to 
the upper waters of the Little Sandy. He had good sport and 
brought out a full creel; but better than that, he had the rare 
experience of seeing the beaver at work. The beavers had made 
several dams in this part of the stream, flooding considerable 
tracts, and standing in these ponds, which are not very deep, 
Mr. Davis could plainly see large numbers of cutthroat trout of 
unusual size, doubtless bigger because of the more abundant food 
and warmer waters of these ponds. And from these ponds he 
caught a number of large trout which rose freely, though the 
water was perfectly calm and clear — an unusual experience, es- 
pecially for a fly fisherman. 

Eight miles above Aschoff 's Salmon River joins the Sandy, 
and Mclntyre's at this point is a good hotel. There is a state 
hatchery at this point also, and Salmon River is good fishing. 
The trout of these tributary streams are cutthroat and rainbow 
in about equal numbers, and steelheads for winter fishing. Also 
great numbers of sea-run trout in the fall. 

The Oregon whitefish is also to be had at times in good 
numbers in these streams, and takes a small fly freely. This fish 
is a delicious table fish and scarcely second to the graylings as 
a sporting fish, though not properly appreciated by most an- 
glers, and by some wantonly . thro wn away and supposed to be 
a worthless sucker, which is a great mistake. The whitefish of 
our Cascades streams is now known as the Oregon Whitefish 
(Coregonus Oregonus), varying very little from the Rocky 
Mountain whitefish, which was the former classification of our 

Fagre thirteen 

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whitefish also. Strangers visiting our waters and unacquainted 
with the species may know the whitefish by the following traits. 
It is silvery, with a brownish tint, rounder bodied and rather 
longer than a trout of the same weight, fins placed as in the sal- 
mon family, but larger, the tail being deeply forked. Its head is 
smaller than that of the trout, and its very small mouth, which 
is set below the center of the head, is a characteristic mark. Its 
mouth will hardly admit the little finger, in a fish of a pound 

The whitefish is far more particular in his choice of habitat 
than the cutthroat trout. None are found in any of our "West 
Side" or coast streams. He inhabits only the clearest and cold- 
est streams of the Cascades. This fish belongs to the salmonidae, 
but partakes of the characteristics of some cyprinoid fishes. Its 
mouth is not armed with teeth, and its food is largely soft-bodied 

Another fine trout stream tributary to Sandy River is Gor- 
don Creek, which rises on the south side of the high mountains 
behind Bridal Veil, and enters Sandy River about half way be- 
tween Bull Run and Troutdale. 

The streams flowing into Sandy River (Gordon, Bull Run, 
Little Sandy and Cedar Creek) are most conveniently accessible 
by the Mount Hood Electric Railway from Portland, though all 
are too much fished in their lower waters, and one should go 
some miles above the easy reach of the Sunday picnics. Sandy 
P. 0. is a pretty good starting point for many of these streams 
of the nearer Cascades, good hotel accommodations there, livery 
and men acquainted with the country to act as guides or drivers. 
The scenery of the region is magnificent, Mount Hood and the 
great range of the Cascades being near at hand. 


Although it is not an easy matter to qualify in the Salmon Club, yet, 
during the past two months, sixteen different anglers have landed the much 
prized fish according to the rules. All of the fish were chinook salmon, and 
were taken as follows: 

Fag-e fourteen 



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Gold Button Class. 

Melven D. Snow, April 22, 1914 40 lbs. 8 oz. 

Silver Button Class. 

Warren Cornell, April 23, 1914 , .34 lbs. 

E. H. Hawkins, April 26, 1914 32 lbs. 8 oz. 

W. F. Backus, April 24, 1914 34 lbs. 12 oz. 

Fred W. Smith, April 28, 1914 30 lbs. 

E. C. Bryson, April 28, 1914 .31 lbs. 

Perry Kitzmiller, April 28, 1914 32 lbs. 

Bronze Button Class. 

Harry Abele, March 22, 1914 20 lbs. 4 oz. 

John Drennen, April 5, 1914 20 lbs. . 

Bay C. Winter, April 9, 1914 24 lbs. 

L. H. Dart, April 23, 1914 24 lbs. 8 oz. 

Dr. A. F. Knoder, April 26, 1914 20 lbs. 4 oz. 

Eev. C. W. Eobinson, April 30, 1914 21 lbs. 8 oz. 

E. W. Beckett, April 30, 1914 26 lbs. 8 oz. 

C. C. Harris, April 29, 1914 24 lbs. 8 oz. 

W. C. Block, April 26, 1914 .'. .24 lbs. 8 oz. 

Mr. Perry Kitzmiller, secretary and treasurer of the club, is keeping a 
record of salmon that have been caught on light tackle. Over one hundred 
and forty of these fish have been landed during the past two months — many 
of them not coming up to the qualified weight. Some of the members have 
landed several fish which have been above the qualified weight. Mr. Harry 
Abele, the first man to qualify by landing a chinook salmon weighing 20 
lbs. 4 oz., soon after landed two more salmon, — one weighing 25 lbs. and the 
other weighing 26 lbs. 

Walter Backus, of Portland, has been trying out light tackle on the 
Umpqua Eiver. He recently landed three chinook salmon, each of which 
was heavy enough to qualify him for membership in the Salmon Club. 


This organization is to be known as the Salmon Club of Oregon, and is 
formed for the purpose of encouraging the use of light tackle in the taking 
of large game fish. In order to be eligible for membership, the angler must 
take a salmon on the required tackle, said salmon to weigh twenty pounds 
or more. 


1. The direction and eontrol of the Salmon Club shall be vested in a 
board of five directors, a majority of which shall be members of the Mult- 
nomah Anglers ' Club, who are also active members of the Salmon Club. The 

Pag-e fifteen 



said directors shall be elected at the regular annual meeting of the Club, to 
be held the second Friday in January. 

2. The Board of Directors shall prescribe rules regulating the affairs 
and conduct of the Club as, in their judgment, may from time to time be 
found necessary and proper, and may prescribe the form of proxies. 

3. A majority of the directors shall constitute a quorum. 

4. At the first meeting after their election, the Directors shall organ- 
ize by the election, from their own number, of a Chairman and Secretary- 
Treasurer. The angler taking the largest fish during the year shall be 
Honorary President for the following year. 

5. All officers and directors shall be actual residents of the State of 

6. The Board of Directors shall have the power to designate the mem- 
bership of the weighing committee, which membership shall be unlimit'*^, 
and as deemed necessary by said Board. The weights fixed by the official 
weighers shall be final unless protest be made in writing and delivered to 
a member of the Weighing Committee within one hour after fish is first 


1. A bronze button shall be presented to each angler landing a salmon 
weighing twenty pounds or more. 

2. A silver button shall be presented to each angler landing a salmon 
weighing thirty pounds or more. 

3. A gold button shall be presented to each angler landing a salmon 
weighing forty pounds or more. 

4. No person shall receive more than one button of prescribed quality. 
Each angler, upon taking a fish of the required weight, will be awarded the 
proper button, upon a payment of an initiation fee of $1.00, and if a button 
of higher value is earned at any time, it will be given in exchange for the 
one held previously. 

5. A permanent cup shall be provided by the Club and at the end of 
each season the name of the angler taking the largest fish shall be engraved 


1. The line used must not exceed a standard nine-thread linen line. 

2. Rod to be made of any material, except solid bamboo cane, to be not 
shorter than five feet over all, and to weigh not more than six ounces. 

3. The leader shall not be more than thirty-six inches in length. Reel 
and spoon to be unrestricted. 

4. Anglers competing for membership or prizes must submit their 
tackle for inspection to one of the Weighing Committee when catch is 

5. Anglers must bring fish to gaff unaided, the fish must be reeled in, 

Fag« sixteen 



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and gaffed by the angler. A broken rod, if broken any time during the 
landing of the fish, disqualifies the catch. 

6. Fish must be weighed by one of the Weighing Committee designated 
by the Club, and the weight recorded. 

7. Each angler landing a fish of the necessary weight, will be required 
to sign the regular blank form, stating that he or she complied with all the 
rules of the club, forms of which will be provided by the Weighing 

8. The season for taking salmon to be from January 1 to July 1, ex- 
cept on the coast streams, where the season shall be January 1 to October 1. 
It is further understood that the season on Eogue Kiver shall be from Jan- 
uary 1 to July 1. 

The Directors of the Salmon Club are as follows: L. W. Humphreys, 
Chairman; Perry Kitzmiller, Secretary and Treasurer; Walter Backus, W. C. 
Block, W. N. Shenefield. 

Weighing Committee. 

The following is the official list of the members of the weighing com- 
mittee for the Salmon Club of Oregon: 

For the Willamette Eiver: H. C. Frisbie, Wilson & Cooke, Miller- 
Parker Co., Huntley Drug Co., Dad Brown, all of Oregon City. 

For Eogue Eiver: Joe Wharton and George Cramer, of Grants Pass; 
E. L. Ewing, Medford; W. von der Hellen, Eagle Point; E. D. Eeed, Gold 
Hill; Mr. Dunn, Melrose. 

For the Nehalem Eiver: E. H. Lindsey, of Mohler, A. H. Sandberg, 
Batterson Station; E. H. Cady, Wheeler; H. J. Pies, Salmonberry Station. 

For the Umpqua Eiver: J. H. Sykes, Eoseburg. 

For the Necanicum Eiver: Clair Godfrey, Seaside. 

For the McKenzie Eiver: Walter McCormack, Eugene. 

For the Columbia Eiver: Joe Leaby, Astoria. 

For Bays, Wilson and Trask Eivers: W. O. Chase, Tillamook. 


The Pendleton Tribune of April 1st comments as follows concerning 
fishing conditions in that part of the country: 

"Not for several years has the trout season opened more auspiciously 

for Umatilla County anglers than it did today. 

"The abundance of trout in the streams is attributed to the large 
plantings made during the last three years by the State Fish and Game 
Commission. Prior to that time only a very few fish were planted in Uma- 
tilla County streams, and these were all furnished by the government. 

"The anglers received nothing in return for their license money until 
the Fish and Game Commission was created. The work of this commission, 
including all the expense of enforcing the fish and game laws, is now 
maintained by the fund created by the sale of fishing and hunting licenses. 
This is the only one of the state commissions which is self-supporting, and 
is therefore free from the criticisms now being hurled against commissions 
in general in the state-wide fight against high taxation." 

Fag** seventeen 

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Will Tompkins made a three-day 
trip to the upper Clackamas River 
and returned with about fifty fine 
large trout. From indications, fly 
fishing will begin a month earlier 
than usual in the higher mountain 


M. L. Hasbrook, of Prairie City, 
says there are more miles of trout 
water in Grant County than in any 
other county in the state. Accord- 
ing to his figures there are 7,000 
miles of water well adapted for 
trout fishing within the borders of 
his county. 


Mr. Foley reports having seen a 
covey of twenty-five Chinese pheas- 
ants on his farm two and one-half 
miles northeast of Burns. This is 
welcome news, as it was feared by 
many that these birds had not 
wintered well. It is now most cer- 
tain that the introduction of these 
game birds into Harney Valley is a 


*. * * 

During the past winter one ante- 
lope was seen on the townsite of 
Wellington and three near the Wav- 
erly postoffice. It has not been 
many years since these graceful 
little animals were quite plentiful 
in Harney Valley and a few small 
bands are still to be found among 
the cattle in some of , the larger 


E. A. Hildreth, of Butte Falls, 
reports catching an Eastern Brook 
trout nine inches in length in the 

Big Butte. 

* # * 

A. S. Hubbard, of Ashland, re- 
ports that splendid catches of fish 
have been made in his locality in 
the past month, especially in streams 
that were stocked last year. 

* * * 

A. S. Hubbard, of Ashland, re- 
ports that in his locality silver gray 
squirrels often girdle young pine 
trees, especially in sugar pine thick- 
ets, when there is a heavy fall of 
snow. This is done, as a rule, near 
the tops of trees from fifteen to 
thirty feet high. This report dif- 
fers from that of John F. Adams, 
of Curry County, which was pub- 
lished in the April issue of The 
Oregon Sportsman. 


J. J. Furber, of Klamath Falls, 
reports that Canada geese began 
hatching this year about the middle 
of April. He reports seeing several 

broods on the 16th, 17th and 18th. 

* * # 

Fishing continues to be the fa- 
vored sport about Klamath Falls, 
with Spencer Creek the choice. 
Harry Peltz, O. W. Mathews, O. 
Peyton and Lee Bean returned from 
there the second week in April with 

the limit of fifty pounds each. 

* * * 

L. Eobertson and E. Hardenbrook 

Pag-e eighteen 

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caught twenty-eight trout weighing 
forty pounds at the head of Link 
River April 12th. The largest 
weighed seven pounds. They used 
both spoon hook and minnows with 


Tom and Will Bernard caught a 
hundred and thirty fine trout in 
two days' fishing. The fish weigh- 
ed from one to five pounds and 
were caught with a spinner. 


Dr. M. M. Bull and Mr. F. C. 
Bean recently made an eight-mile 
fishing cruise, starting ten miles 
above Vida on the McKenzie River. 
They caught forty rainbows or red- 
sides, the longest fish being seven- 
teen inches. 

* * * 

Several large catches of rainbows 
or red-sides were reported from the 
McKenzie River during April. But 
it seems that the majority of fish 
caught were females and full of 
eggs. These fish should be pro- 
tected until after the spawning sea- 
son if the supply of trout is to be 
kept up in the McKenzie. 

Mr. Raleigh Henderson recently 
caught sixteen trout measuring from 
twelve to sixteen inches fishing in 
Cochran Creek. Angle worms were 
used as bait. 


The Multnomah Anglers' Club re- 
cently held their first casting tour- 
nament on the new grounds; it was 

well attended. The results of the 
tournament were as follows: 

In the long-distance bait-casting 
with one-half ounce weight, W. C. 
Block was the winner with A. E. 
Burghduff a close second. In the 
quarter-ounce distance casting, L. 
W. Humphreys was first, Burgh- 
duff taking second. Dr. E. C. 
McFarland was winner in the ac- 
curacy bait casting, with a score of 
96 per cent, with W. C. Block and 
L. W. Humphreys close for second 
and third places. In the fly-casting 
events, W. E. Carlon won the long- 
distance casting with heavy rods, 
with a cast of 90 feet, while W. F. 
Backus was first in the distance 
fly event with a light rod, 89 feet, 
and also won the accuracy fly-cast- 
ing, with a score of 99 per cent. In 
the special dry fly event for the 
prize rod donated by Mi. Wilson, 
the winner was George Ray. 

The club plans to hold another 
tournament about the third week 
in May, the exact date to be an- 
nounced later. 

* * * 

Walter Backus, the well-known 
angler, says: 

<( There is no longer any doubt 
as to whether light tackle will do 
for catching salmon, as not only 
does light tackle land the big fish, 
but it also lands a large percent- 
age of the strikes. Kitzmiller and 
Beckett, who fished together several 
days during the week, have a rec- 
ord of landing fifteen fish out of 
sixteen hooked, which is something 
no heavy tackle man can boast of. 

"Another angler fishing with 
light tackle in the swift water be- 

Pag-e nineteen 

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low the falls, landed three salmon 
weighing respectively twenty-four, 
twenty-six and thirty-one pounds, in 
less than an hour, while at the 
same time three heavy lines and one 
heavy rod were broken in the same 
water on fish not a bit heavier. ' ' 


M. F. Teehan is serving a fifty- 
five day sentance in the Umatilla 
County jail for attempting to trap 
Chinese pheasants at their nests on 
a wild bird and game refuge. 
The offense was committed on the 
grounds of the Eastern Oregon Hos- 
pital for the Insane, near Pendle- 
ton. Teehan was arraigned before 
Justice of the Peace Joe H. Parkes 
and entered a plea of guilty. He 
was given the minimum penalty of 
$50.00 and thirty days, but having 
no money, fifteen days were added 
to his jail sentence. He was using 
a steel trap and was trying to catch 
the birds to eat them. 
* * * 

The past season has been a pros- 
perous one for Umatilla County 
trappers and hunters of predatory 
animals. According to County Clerk 
Saling more coyote bounties have 
been claimed during the year than 
during any other similar period 
since the bounty law went into 

There have been an unusually 
large number of bob -cats killed the 
past winter. Especially is this true 
of the southern end of the county. 
Among those bringing in cat hides 
recently are Bus J. Barney, Jesse 
Hilbert and W. W. Allison, all of 
Ukiah. The latter brought in seven 

cat hides and one Canadian lynx, 
This is the second Canadian lynx 
killed in this section this winter, 
the other having been trapped on 
the north fork of the John Day 
Biver by William Bider. 

According to Mr. Allison and 
other people who have been in the 
mountains, the number of deer in 
the hills of Umatilla and Grant 
Counties is greater today than for 
many years. They say they are in- 
creasing very rapidly. 


Mr. A. M. Scott, of Gaston, re- 
cently caught a bass in Scoggin 
Creek, about one mile above the 
place where it empties into the Tuala- 
tin Biver, which was 14^ inches long 
and weighed three pounds. This is 
very likely one of the fish that was 
planted by Mr. J. H. Wescott, of 
Gaston, during the summer of 1912. 

* * * 

Anglers in Washington County, es- 
pecially in the vicinity of Gaston, 
are having splendid success. Dr. J. 
A. Baker, of Gaston, caught sixty 
trout on April 1st. A. J. Hamerick 
and son of the same place also 
brought in a basket of sixty trout. 
Fish are abundant in the Tualatin. 
Salmon eggs are generally used as 
bait. Splendid catches have also 
been made in Scoggin Creek. Chas. 
Wescott caught thirty trout one day. 
Quite a number of Eastern brook 
trout have been caught in the Tual- 
atin Biver near Gaston, showing 
that some of the fish planted during 
the past year or so are thriving. 

Page twenty 


uiniiil iiiKiiiniiniiitiiHiii niiiiiiuiiiiiiuiitiiliiiiliinliitilliitlliliiiiiiiuiir i ihiiiiiiiiiiiiiikii iiiiiMiiiiiiriiniiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiimiiiii.iiiitiiiiiiiiuiiiiuii iiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiki 

Are You 

a Sportsman? 

A true sportsman is not necessarily a 
man who carries a rod or a gun; lie is a 
lover of woods and streams, fields and 
flowers, tree and mountains, fish, birds and 
animals. The joy of hunting and fishing 
comes in the spirit of an amateur, not as a 
professional. His point of view is in the 
chase, not in the bag. He takes more pleas- 
ure in watching his dog work than in see- 
ing a bird fall after it has been flushed, or 
in making a long, clean cast and getting a 
rise than in landing the fish. 

The sportsmanship that is worth while 
is that which takes a wholesome view of 
nature. When game becomes scarce, the 
sportsman ceases to kill and becomes 
strictly a protector. He does not object 
to closed seasons or small bags. When 
quail are scarce, one bird on the fence is 
worth two in the game bag. 

MAR 24 1917 


-l| Illl Illllllllllllll 


JUNE 1914 




By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II ] 

5c a copy— 50c a year 

I Number 6 

! i 1 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 N 1 1 1 M 1 1 n ] 1 1 1 1 1 n : 1 1 1 1 [ .7 


Oregon Sportsman, June 1914 


Eaising Game for the Market — Editorial 1 

The Greatest Enemy of the Birds — Edward H. Forbush. . 2 

Cougar in Coos County 3 

The Bobber of Bird Homes — T. Gilbert Pearson 4 

Fight Between Deer and Cougar 4 

Hawks Fight Over Babbit 5 

Pheasant Farming — 'Gene M. Simpson 6 

Bivers and Streams of Oregon — John Gill 12 

Chinese Pheasants in Wallowa County 15 

Notes by the Way— C. F. Hodge 16 

Boldness of Timber Wolf and Cougar 17 

Additional Sportsmen's Organizations 18 

Bounties on Predatory Animals 19 

Pond Bearing of Bass 19 

Report of Fur Bearing Animals 20 

A Sportsman 's Catechism 21 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II JUNE 1914 Number 6 


In many parts of Oregon there are uncultivated places that 
might be used to good advantage in raising deer, elk and other 
wild animals. There is no reason why deer or elk cannot be 
handled much the same as domestic animals. According to the 
tagging law, which was passed at the last session of the legisla- 
ture, deer or elk, when raised in captivity, can be sold in market 
the same as a sheep or a calf is sold. 

A deer recently sold in one of the Portland markets accord- 
ing to the tagging law attracted wide attention and brought a 
good price. It also was the cause of a large number of complaints 
coming from hunters who did not know of the tagging law, but 
who thought the game laws were being violated. 

A very profitable industry might well be started, especially 
through the Willamette Valley, in rearing game birds for market 
and for breeding purposes. A farmer who can make a success at 
raising turkeys can readily raise Chinese pheasants. The demand 
for pheasants is very large. Oregon is known throughout the 
United States as the home of the Chinese pheasant. Orders for 
these birds come from far and wide. For table use the Chinese 
pheasant brings a price of $1.50, while a chicken of the same size 

will sell for half the amount. For breeding purposes these birds 
retail from $4.00 to $6.00 per pair. 

The demand for Chinese pheasants and other game birds is 
much greater each year than can be supplied. If some of our 
energetic farmers could only be interested in the matter, there is 
no reason why our markets and hotels could not be supplied with 
pheasants throughout the year just as they are supplied with 

It is a very easy matter to govern the marketing of these 
birds by the tagging system and their rearing in large numbers 
would mean an attractive resource to Oregon. ., 

Pag-e one 

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State Ornithologist of Massachusetts 

A mature cat in good hunting grounds kills on an average 
fifty birds a year. Kittens and half grown cats do not catch 
many birds, but the old cat that wanders off into the fields 
and woods is terribly destructive. Mr. William Brewster tells 
of an acquaintance in Maine who said that his cat killed about 
fifty birds a year. When asked why he did not get another cat, 
he said that it would be of no use, for they were all alike. Mr. 
A. C. Dyke writes that his family owned a cat which was well 
cared for and a particular pet. They watched it through one 
season and found that it killed fifty-eight birds, including the 
young in five nests. Nearly a hundred correspondents scat- 
tered through all the counties of the state report the cat as one 
of the greatest enemies of the birds. The reports that have come 
in of the torturing and killing of birds by cats are absolutely 
jsickening. The number of birds killed by them in this state is 
appalling. It is quite true, however, that some cats do not kill 
many birds, and that some intelligent or high-bred cats may be 
taught not to kill any. Some cat lovers believe that each cat 
kills on the average not more than ten birds a year; but I have 
learned of two instances where more than that number were 
killed in a single day, and another where seven were killed. 
If we assume, however, that the average cat on the farm kills 
but ten birds a year, and that there are two cats to each farm in 
Massachusetts, we have, in round numbers, seventy thousand cats 
killing seven hundred thousand birds annually. 

If we add to the cats kept on farms the enormous number 
of village and city cats, many of which have good opportunities 
for catching birds, we shall see the chief reason for the great mor- 
tality to birds and their young about our villages and cities. If 
cats are allowed their liberty at night during the nesting season, 

Fagfe two 

t'tinitl' tHiilMliiiiii inn llliiHiuii nit iii. Mdiiiui inn 


they, unnoticed, rob many birds' nests. The cat is more danger- 
ous to birds than any native mammal that roams our woods, 
for it is nocturnal, a splendid climber, a good stalker, a strong 
leaper, and is very quick and active. 

Unfortunately, the cat is only half domesticated and easily 
goes back to a wild state. If the dog loses its master it will 
soon find another, but the mature cat is more likely to run wild. 
Thousands of these wild or half-wild cats roam the country des- 
troying game birds, squirrels, field mice, chickens and any 
animal they can master. The effect produced by cats is con- 
vincingly shown where they have been introduced on islands 
and have nearly exterminated rabbits, and greatly decreased the 
number of birds. 

John Burroughs says that cats probably destroy more birds 
than all other animals combined. William Dutcher, president of 
the National Association of Audubon Societies, considers the 
wild house cat one of the greatest causes of bird destruction 
known. He says that the boy with the air gun is not in the 
same class with the cat. 


Mr. J. C. Warner, who lives on the south fork of Coquille River in 
Coos county, reports good cougar hunting in this locality during the past 
few months. Some time ago while he was out looking up some cattle, he 
discovered the carcass of a freshly killed deer. He returned home, got his 
dogs and turned them loose where the deer had been killed. The dogs had 
difficulty, as the trails were cold. In a radius of less than a mile, Mr. 
Warner says he discovered the carcasses of nine deer, none of which he 
thinks had been killed more than ten or fifteen days. In making a larger 
circle about the locality, his dogs struck the fresh trail of a panther and in 
twenty minutes the animal was treed in a maple. While skinning this cat, 
his dogs were hunting around and in a short time they were barking up 
another tree. To his surprise, Mr. Warner found his dogs had chased two 
more cougars up one tree. Shortly his dogs were ranging out again and had 
a fourth panther treed. The first was a large female measuring eight feet 
nine inches; the other three were yearlings. 

Later in the winter Mr. Warner succeeded in killing a fifth panther 
measuring eight feet. He found where this big cat had killed three deer. 

Pag-e three 

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Secretary National Association of Audubon Societies 

There is no wild bird or animal in the United States whose 
destructive inroads on our bird population is in any sense com- 
parable to the widespread devastation created by the do- 
mestic cat. 

This creature captures wild birds at all seasons of the year, 
but is particularly active in catching young birds immediately 
after they have left the nest and before they have gained suf- 
ficient strength of wing to escape. 

It is idle for lovers of cats to contend that it is only the 
half-wild and unfed animals which indulge in bird killing. It 
is as natural for a cat to want to kill a bird as it is for a 
child to want candy. 

I have personally known cats which received the best of 
attention, and for whose happiness the culinary possibilities 
of the household were exhausted, to stalk birds on the lawn 
with apparently as much eagerness as a starving leopard might 
creep upon a fawn. 

Putting bells on cats would doubtless save the lives of many 
birds. A surer safeguard would, of course, be to keep the 
cats shut up, especially during the spring months when the birds 
are engaged in rearing their young; but the only absolute way 
to stop the depredations of Grimalkin is to take him to the 
electric chair or the guillotine, although of course this would 
be extreme treatment, the general application of which could 
not be advocated. 


Mr. Ben S. Patton, of Estacada, recently sent to the office of The Ore- 
gon Sportsman with the following explanation, a cougar skull which was 
originally found by August Schonberg in the mountain region between Fish 
Creek and the south fork of the Clackamas. 

Pagre four 



"In the fall of 1912 Mr. Schonberg found the cougar about ten feet 
from the carcass of a deer; the deer was badly bitten on the back of the 
neck and the cougar had a hole in the side of its head, as shown in the skull. 
These were the only marks he could find on either of the animals. From all 
indications, the cougar attempted to climb a nearby tree after it had gotten 
the fatal blow in the head, as the bark of the tree was clawed up about 
eight or ten feet and the cougar was lying where it fell back. The ani- 
mals had evidently been dead a week or more, as both hides were spoiled. 

"The only explanation of the occurrence is that the deer got in a fatal 
blow with its horns. It may have been accidental,, in its efforts to escape, 
or it may have put up a fight and won, at least to the extent of killing the 
cougar. The cougar, no doubt, killed the deer after it had been fatally 
wounded and, with its strength failing, natural instinct prompted it to 
climb a tree. It is not uncommon for such animals when mortally hurt to 
do this." 

A similar incident was noted by Mr. Fred Floeter, of Trenholm, Co- 
lumbia county, during the winter of 1912 and 1913. He treed a large cougar 
with his dogs. When the animal was killed and examined, Mr. Floeter found 
that it had a wound in the flank which was evidently made by the horn of 
a deer which had penetrated the body about five inches. The wound seemed 
comparatively fresh, but all the hair had been licked off around the cut. 
Upon examination of the claws of the cougar they showed a bloodshot con- 
dition at the base. 

Mr. Floeter thought the cougar had attacked a good-sized buck, but 
had secured a poor hold, allowing the deer to turn and get the better of the 
big cat. 


Mr. and Mrs. Bart Shea, of Burns, report a very interesting sight viewed 
from their farm near Crow Camp, one day during the past winter. 

A large American goshawk had caught a rabbit and was carrying it 
away when it was attacked by another hawk, of the same species, seeking to 
deprive it of its prey. Both birds had attained a considerable height when 
the robber, after making several unsuccessful attempts from above, darted 
in from below and fastened upon the rabbit, wresting it from the opponent. 
Hawk number two was turned several times in the air by the falling rabbit, 
and, before it could regain its equilibrium, had lost its hold on the ill-gotten 
treasure. Just at that instant hawk number three appeared on the scene 
and, swooping down, picked up the coveted prize before it had reached the 
ground and made away with it, unpursued 

Pag-e five 





Superintendent of the State Game Farm 

If one can raise turkeys, he can raise pheasants. Like turkeys, when 
matured, they are very hardy. In fact, the similarity between the young 
pheasant and young turkey is very marked. Some of their calls, par- 
ticularly one at nightfall, are almost identical, and in general, treat- 
ment adapted to turkeys may safely be applied to pheasants. When 
young the birds are tame and soon learn to know their keeper. They 
will become sufficiently familiar to fly upon the keeper's shoulder or 
eat out of his hand, but the appearance of a stranger calls for a note 
of warning from the whole flock. The note is low, but quick, and its 
effect is instantaneous. During the laying season it is not advisable to 
allow strangers to visit the pens where the pheasants can see them, and 
better success will be obtained if only one or two persons visit the pheas- 
ants, and these should be the ones to feed them. The birds will be 
better controlled if the same garments are worn each time, as they in- 
stantly detect a change in dress. They will avoid for a day or more any- 
«■ thing new placed in their pens. Some breeders place fir boughs or branches 
of other trees in the pens to offer a hiding place for the pheasants, 
but it is not at all necessary. 


Pheasants are polygamous and four hens and a cock may be kept 
in a pen sixteen feet square. This is a very convenient size, but in 
any event the birds should each have at least fifty square feet of ground. 
It is of advantage to have the hens so arranged that the pheasants may be 
be changed from one pen to another occasionally. This permits the ground 
to freshen. It is a good plan to spade up the ground frequently. A 
very satisfactory permanent pen for a trio, two hens and a cock, would 
be sixteen feet by thirty-two feet, divided lengthwise with a partition and 
shedded for eight feet along one end. The shedded end should be ar- 
ranged to ward off as much of the storm as possible. Convenient 
entrances may be built and provision should be made so the birds may 
pass from one pen to another at the keeper's pleasure. 

Where it is desired to raise full-winged birds under covered pens, 
twine netting, similar to fish netting, possesses advantages over wire 
netting for overhead covering. Aside from being much cheaper, the 
twine netting requires fewer posts and braces and can be put up in 
much less time and taken down and stored away when not in use. Wire 

Pag-e six 

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covered pens, especially if the wire is of one-inch mesh, in a locality 
subject to snow storms, is always a source of annoyance and frequently 
much damage may be done. Its advantage is its durability. But per- 
haps the greatest advantage in using twine netting will be found in 
the fact that birds cannot injure themselves by flying against it, as 
is frequently the case with wire covered pens. If you cover your pens 
with wire netting, stretch it loosely. It may not look so well, but it 
will save the birds. 


The breeding yards with removable partitions set over against the 
fence, for pinioned breeding birds, are a great improvement over the 
old-style stationary pens. These pens are twenty-four feet square, have 
no covering and accommodate six hens and one cock during the laying 
season, immediately after which the birds are turned out into a large 










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General View of Pheasant Yards at the State Game Farm. The long line of 

pens running* across the field are where the breeding* birds are kept 

one cock to six hens in each yard. Partitions are removable. 

open field adjoining. At this season the cocks will not fight, and but 
little time is consumed each day in caring for several hundred birds. The 
partitions are then set aside, the entire strip cultivated and sown with grass 
seed and the work may be done with a plow, whereas if the partitions were 
stationary it would take considerable time to spade and rake each individual 
yard. About the first of March these partitions should be put back into 
place and the birds mated up for the laying season. 

Breeding yards for full-winged birds are the same size as the open 
yards above described, but the partitions are stationary and are covered 
overhead with wire netting stretched loosely. One side is boarded up 
tight, which, together with a three-foot roof on the side from which the 
storms come, forms sufficient shelter. Under this shelter ample perches 
are provided, but must be removed just before the laying season to 

Page seven 




prevent the birds from dropping their eggs while upon the perch, in 
which case the eggs would be broken and soon eaten. For the beginner 
with a few birds I should recommend pens sixteen by thirty-two feet 
described above and the changing from one division to another every 
month or so. 


The habit of egg-eating is always a source of great annoyanee to 
the pheasant raiser and no sure method of prevention or cure is known. 
The best method to combat the evil so far discovered is to place several 
cast iron nest eggs, painted as near the color of pheasant eggs as 
possible, around in the breeding pen. The iron eggs are far superior 
to the wooden or porcelain eggs, but after all, it is best to remove the 
temptation by gathering the eggs several times a day. 

Nests for the setting hens are placed in yards twelve by sixteen 
feet, two sections of nests each, or twelve nests to the yard, and 
numbered consecutively from one to twelve. These yards are con- 
structed in a double row with an alley way between, from which a gate 
opens into each yard. The nests should be made about fourteen inches 
square placed flat upon the ground without a bottom. A slight depression 
should be made in the ground, in which arrange a small quantity of soft 
straw or grass hay as you would for chickens. Peed, fresh water and a 
place for dusting are first provided in each yard, then at a regular 
hour each morning, beginning at yard No. 1, all hens in that yard are 
let out to eat, drink, and take a dust bath, by simply dropping the hinged 
door in front of each nest. Regularity is very essential, since the hens 
soon learn just when to expect their liberty and if not let out on time 
will often become so restless as to foul their nests or break an egg or 
two. While the hens are eating, the yards should be inspected carefully 
and a note made of any nest found in bad order or containing a broken 
or dirty egg. After the hens have all returned to their nests and the 
doors in front fastened securely, a clean rag and a bucket of luke warm 
water is used in washing the eggs in any nest of which a note has been 
made. When possible all the hens in one yard are set at the same time. 
When each yard has hatched, the unhatched eggs are buried, the egg shells 
and straw taken out and burned and new nests made before nesting again. 
During excessively hot weather the ground around the nests should be 
thoroughly sprinkled with water to provide the necessary amount of 
moisture for the eggs. 


For the purpose of perfecting an ideal hen for hatching pheasants, 
buff and white cochin bantams were first crossed, producing a slightly larger 
chicken, about evenly divided in color between buff, white and black with 
Pag-© eight 



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striped hackles. The largest of these females were selected and mated with 
a short chunky Rhode Island red male, producing a hen considerably 
larger than the cochin bantam, one that could cover more eggs, but re- 
taining the broody qualities of the bantam. 

Incubators are found most valuable when used in connection with hens. 
When a number of large hens are set at one time all of the pheasant eggs 
may be removed when just beginning to pip from those of the hens not 
needed to take care of the young pheasants and placed in an incubator 
that has previous been heated to about 130°. The hens from which the 
eggs have been removed may be reset immediately. The smaller and more 
quiet motherly hens should be left on their nests and not disturbed. The re- 
moval of all of the eggs but one or two from a hen is a mistake, since in 
the absence of the usual number of eggs in the nest the hen is most likely 
to sit so heavily on the remaining one or two as to smash them at hatch- 
ing time. 

After these hens have been removed to the brood coop with their in- 
dividual hatch and given feed and water, and allowed ample time to hover 
their chicks, other young pheasants may be added from the incubator, pro- 
viding they are of the same age and variety as those she has hatched. A 
hen will invariably kill instantly any young pheasant given her of a variety 
other than that which she has hatched. For instance, a hen that has hatched 
silver pheasants will not claim goldens, or ring-necks, and vice versa. A 
hen can properly hover and care for more young pheasants than she can 
hatch out without entailing considerable loss before they leave the nest; 
hence the use of the incubator. 


For some time I experienced difficulty in getting the hen to hover the 
pheasants when they were first taken from the nest. The pheasants being 
foster children of the hen, do not understand her call or manner. They do 
not seem to understand that she will hover them. They do not recognize 
that she is "home and mother." The hen is perfectly willing to receive the 
pheasants, but her call to them is not the natural call of the pheasant and 
hence it means nothing to them. Some plan must be adopted to bring 
the pheasants under the hen. Eecently I have adopted this plan with good 
success. A basket is prepared with a hot water bag filled with tepid water 
and placed in the bottom of the basket, over which is placed a cloth. When 
the pheasants are first taken from the nest, they are placed in this basket 
and a cloth thrown over the top. Enough air will pass through the sides 
of the basket so they will not smother. The brood coop is then prepared 
by placing sufficient sand to cover the bottom of the coop. Feed and 
water is placed in the coop and the hen is left in here for about twenty 
minutes. During this twenty minutes, the hen has had an opportunity to 

Faff* ten 



immi mm in i minim, in tiiiniiiiiiiiinitiwiM iiiiimiiiimimiimih n 

feed and get acquainted with her new quarters and is ready to settle down 
and receive the young pheasants. The pheasants are then placed in the 
coop with her and having nothing else to attract their attention, the hen 
•will see to it that the pheasants are hovered. It is advisable to take the 
hen off in the forenoon so that one may give the chicks more or less at- 
tention and see that they are properly hovered. If the day is warm, the 
plan of using the hot water bag need not be followed. If the day is cloudy 
or cold, of course, one will necessarily have to give the pheasants more 
attention than on a bright warm day. 

The number of young pheasants that may safely be given to one hen 
varies from about twelve to sixteen, according to the weather and the size 

Male Beeves Pheasant at State Game Farm. 

of the hen. A common mistake is to set too many eggs under one hen, or 
to give one hen too many young pheasants. Late one summer I gave a large 
Plymouth Eock hen twenty-five little pheasants of which she raised to 
maturity twenty-four. This, however, was an exceptional case. 

Pheasant eggs will, beyond doubt, hatch as well in an incubator as 
chicken eggs, but I have to admit that so far I have been unable to suc- 
cessfully brood young pheasants artificially, though the incubator has 
proven a great help, when used as described above. 

Pheasants will hatch about the twenty-third day and their natural dis- 
position is to leave the nest immediately, hence the added advantage of 
having the hen locked up. When the young pheasants are about twenty- 
four hours old, remove with the mother hen to a coop where they should be 
kept until three days old. The trap door at the bottom may then be raised, 
giving the little birds their freedom, restraining the hen. Unless the vard is 
covered over with wire netting, the young birds should be pinioned to prevent 
their flying over the fence and straying away. This is done when the pheasant 
chick is about three days' old by clipping the last joint of one wing with 
sharp scissors. 

Page eleven 


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With Some Descriptions of the Country, Fish and Fishing— Part 7 



This splendid stream rises in the southeast corner of Clacka- 
mas county near Lake Lisa on the summit of the Cascades, and 
has a course of about 75 miles to its entrance into the Willamette 
River near Oregon City. It receives many grand trout brooks, 
and all deserve more space than can be given them here. Roar- 
ing River, its main northeastern branch, North Fork and Eagle 
Creek are all large tributaries, and the first two can be reached 
only by a long trip into the mountains by trail. The lower 
waters of Eagle Creek are accessible by the electric line to 
Estacada and Cazadero. The upper Clackamas and its branches 
are in deep canyons and sometimes unapproachable for miles. 
The streams are deep and powerful, and the angler should 
be a handy man at shifting for himself in the woods. In our 
summer months a tent is unnecessary, as a bark or brush camp 
can easily be made with a small axe, and there are ferns or 
abundant moss which can be stripped in great rolls from the 
trees for one's bed. 

In the Clackamas and other streams of the Cascades, cut- 
throat, rainbow and Dolly Varden trout abound, but to the 
northward the cutthroat seem more numerous, while rainbow 
and Dolly Varden increase in numbers toward California. 

Two of the Clackamas' lower tributaries — Clear Creek and 
Deep Creek — which are more readily accessible by electric line, 
are good fishing. Eagle Creek P. 0. is a convenient and com- 
fortable base for fishing the stream of that name, and Viola 
for Clear Creek. 

The angler on Eagle Creek will do well to look out for 
certain places where the face of the high cliffs peels off in 

Pag-e twelve 


iiiiiiiiinni miTtn ~ ~ " """ *** 

thin sections of large extent, falling a hundred feet or more 
into the stream, and in places too where the water is most 
tempting. Such a cliff on the south side of Eagle 
Creek, about three miles up the river from Eagle Creek P. 0., 
shed a ton of rock in a large slip that extended over an 
area of forty feet square, on the last occasion the writer was 
fishing there, fortunately on the other side of the river, twenty 
yards away. It fell with a tremendous roar, just where a man 
might have stood to fish the water at the foot of the cliff. 
Beware of such cliffs, where you see fresh scars on the canyon 
side, and piles of fine fragments of new-fallen rock at the foot 
of the palisade. 

This caution applies to many other streams in the deep 
canyons of the Cascades. Serious accidents have occurred also 
where men unacquainted with the trails have attempted to 
go down the cliffs without knowledge. There are places were 
the descent can be made by sliding down in a sitting posture, 
putting on brakes at every bush or stump, and then one may 
follow the stream for a mile before he finds a similar gully by 
which he may ascend. Don't try any place where there are no 
signs of others having gone down, if you would avoid broken 

Estacada is a good point from which to reach the more 
remote waters of the upper Clackamas, and Cazadero, at the 
terminus of the electric railway, is the resort of many success- 
ful anglers. At the mouth of the Clackamas, the rapids in the 
Willamette have been found during the summer of 1913 equal 
to the falls of the "Willamette for salmon fishing, and hundreds 
of Chinook salmon were taken there by rods. The lower Clacka- 
mas will probably repay the salmon fisher, in favorable condi- 
tions, though we all throng to the Willamette now in season. 


This sport has been unusually good during the spring of 
1914. The first salmon of the spring run — the finest Chinooks— 
Seem to seek the Willamette, and gather in great numbers in 

Faff* thlrtMn 




the deep swift waters for a mile below the falls. By the first 
of April some fish are taken with the rods, the sport becoming 
better toward May 1st, but ceasing when the rising Columbia 
backs up the waters of Willamette to fifteen feet at Oregon City. 
The catch of rod fishermen this season was a considerable sup- 
ply of the finest salmon in Portland markets, nearly a ton per 
day having been sold to markets by men fishing for revenue 
only, with the rod. Net fishing begins May 1st, and thereafter 
there is little sport for rod fishermen, as the narrows of the 
river are raked by seine nets — a great loss to the waters of the 
upper river as well as the sportsmen who fish the river below 
the falls. The Willamette from the suspension bridge to the 
falls should be entirely free at all seasons from net fishing. 

Salmon may be lurking by thousands in the boiling depths 
of the rapids below the falls, but only an occasional fish — 
probably not one in fifty — will take the angler's spoon lure. 
* Fishing is almost entirely from boats, and every boat at 
Oregon City is out almost daily, besides many that go up 
(fifteen miles) from Portland. It is necessary to have strong 
tackle, for fish up to fifty pounds weight are taken, and a 
skillful gaffer is as necessary as a competent man at the rod. 
The catch is limited to three fish to a man per day. A club 
has just been formed in Portland, the members of which will 
fish for salmon with six-ounce rods and a small line (9-thread)— 
tackle appears impossibly light, but has proven sufficient, and 
has added vastly to the sport. 

An occasional salmon is caught along the Willamette all the 
way from Portland to the falls. 

When the Columbia reaches a flood stage at 20 feet and 
more, the salmon are able to leap the falls at Oregon City and 
proceed on their way to the spawning grounds of the upper 
river. The fish ladder at the falls permits the ascent of some 
salmon, but it is quite inadequate for the object intended. To 
watch the salmon ascending the fishway . in incredible leaps, 
darting like birds unerringly from pool to pool, is an experience 
worth crossing America to behold. 

Page fourteen 

IUUII<llllI>llll<IIIHlllllUIIHI<lllllll1IIIUIItllllllllllllillllllUllirill IIIIIHIIIIIIIUIIIII ■■■KI1II1 lllll >II1IIIII<<III1I1III1II<IIIIMI1 IlKlllllllllllllllltltllllllHItlKUtllllMIIKUJOItlllllllllKK 




This is one of many by that name in Oregon — a tributary of the 
Clackamas, which may give one a good day's fishing, taking the 
electric line to Eagle Creek village and then by a walk of three 
miles or more scrambling and sliding down a cliff into its canyon. 
This little goat trail is the only one entering the steep canyon for 
miles. It can be found by any woodsman readily enough — the 
first place that looks possible. One should be prepared to wade 
and had better avoid this particular place until as late as July. 

Some of our wide-roving anglers go up Eagle Creek by 
wagon from the village of the same name a dozen miles to the 
falls — romantic cataract in the foothills of the Cascades — and 
bring back, something more than big stories. Shelly Morgan, 
Ray Davis and Mark Gill are habitues of this particular water, 
and can give inquirers the facts. 

Twenty miles south of Oregon City is the Molalla, a delightful 
river in a lovely country. Its principal branches are Milk Creek 
and North Fork. Molalla " Corners" is a good base for the 
angler, and there is good fishing within walking distance or 
available by wagon. Very recently an electric railroad has been 
completed to Molalla and will open up the streams of this region 
to town anglers. South and east of Molalla, ten miles or more, 
the three great forks of Molalla unite. Above these forks the 
auto does not get far, and the beautiful mountain branches form 
here and will yield good fishing for many years by reason of 
their difficulty of access. 

Meadowbrook, a branch of Milk Creek, has been liberally 
stocked with eastern brook trout, which have done better than 
in any waters we know of in this state. 


During the fall of 1912, one hundred and fifty-six Chinese pheasants 
which were reared at the State Game Farm were released on the different 
game refuges in Wallowa county. During the fall of 1913 one hundred and 
ninety-six more pheasants were liberated in this county. As the result of 
two seasons' work, Deputy Game Warden W. E. Leffel makes the following 

Page fifteen 

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On the Cole Eefuge southwest of Joseph, Mr. George Cole reports 
twenty-seven birds feeding with his hogs. County Commissioner W. P. 
Newby reports three coveys of about forty birds. Twenty-four pheasants 
were released here in 1913. John Hayes has reported seventeen birds, while 
Walter Boner has twenty-six pheasants feeding with his sheep. On the 
Wilson Eefuge north of Joseph, Mr. Paul Wilson reports thirteen feeding 
with his cattle. Carl Whitmore has twenty-nine birds about his place. 
Twenty-six or twenty-eight were liberated there in 1912. Charles Crow has 
two flocks about his place, but he did not know just how many birds. 
Bob Shinn has about sixty birds; twenty-eight of these were liberated dur- 
ing the past fall; the balance are birds liberated in 1913. Charles Vest 
reports six birds, while on the Wells ranch there are about thirty. Jacob 
Bauers says there are about a hundred pheasants about his place. Twelve 
were liberated in 1912 and twenty-six birds were liberated in 1913. About 
the grain warehouse at Enterprise, Mr. Leffel saw twelve hens and three 

On the Wade and Fitzpatriek refuge there are twenty-five birds, all 
liberated in 1913. At the Lostine refuge on the Evans ranch and the land 
adjoining, Mr. Cliff Evans estimates there are about ninety pheasants, 
twenty-six of which were liberated in 1912 and the same number in 1913. 
At William Hunter's place, thirty-four of these birds have been feeding 
with his stock. These birds range about his place and on the adjoining 
ranch. At the Tulley place it is estimated there are about a hundred 
pheasants. Twenty-six were liberated in 1912 and twenty-four in 1913. 

Mr. Leffel believes that at the present time there are more than a 
thousand of these pheasants in Wallowa county as a result of liberations 
made there during the past two seasons. He attributes the success of the 
pheasants in this county to the interest among the farmers in protecting 
these birds and feeding them during the winter. 

In addition to the increase of Chinese pheasants, there is a noticeable 
increase of prairie chickens in Wallowa County during the past two seasons. 


On the lakes in western Lane county, there were, April third, a few 
Mallard and Canvas-backs and several small flocks of Bluebills, Teals and 
Buffle-heads. Here are natural breeding grounds for all kinds of ducks, 
but all those questioned about it claimed that only the Mallard nested in 
that region. If this is true, it is probably due to lack of natural food for 
the other species. In fact, no wild rice or wild celery was seen. If these 
and other water plants known to attract waterfowl could be grown there, 
we might induce the Canvas-backs and other species to remain and nest. One 

Pag-e sixteen 

' MII1ltllllllllllUIHHIMMIIIHMMIIIIMtlMIIIMMI*HllllltUUlllltUIIIItllllllUUI»t 



considerable flock of ducks was seen near Couquille about the end of Jan- 
uary, which caused the residents to complain that the ducks had a copy of 
the new Federal law and came in only when they knew they were safe. 

A great danger menaces all the game in this region the present season. 
Numerous construction gangs are making their camps along the line of the 
new railroad from Mapleton to Marshfield, and from Glenada in to the 
main line. In these camps it looked as if very active warden service would 
be required to save any remnant of the game. 

Great numbers of cock pheasants are in evidence everywhere in the 
Willamette Valley and a few were seen in the Grande Eonde. With the best 
of care, however, residents say that they are not increasing there as they had 
hoped they would. In the valleys of the Rogue and Umpqua, resident 
sportsmen attribute the slow increase of pheasants to extensive cultivation 
of orchards and vineyards, the nests being practically all broken up. This 
is rapidly becoming a problem in the Willamette Valley. An acquaintance, 
having an orchard of thirteen acres, said that he broke up several different 
nests, although he tried his best to avoid disturbing them. We should work 
out some system by which all such eggs could be saved. 

Fine flocks of bobwhite and native quail were seen on the Alderman 
farm, near Dayton, and at other points in the Willamette Valley. Good 
flocks of bobwhites were reported on the Conklin farm, near Ontario. They 
were there during the winter and were being carefully protected (except 
from cats) by the people of the neighborhood. I hunted over the farm but 
could not find any, and was inclined to think that the cats had cleaned 
them out. A new complication of the bobwhite problem was encountered 
here. Alfalfa is the great staple and the farmers say that every nest is 
flooded and eggs are destroyed by the incessant irrigation necessary for 
this crop. The two coveys seen about there this winter were the result of 
nests along the railroad embankment. 


Mr. S. T. Hodges, of Gold Hill, who has had many years' experience 
hunting through the mountains of southern Oregon, reports the two following 
incidents concerning the boldness of a wolf and a cougar in the presence of 
a human being. They occurred during some of the early hunting trips of 
Mr. Hodges: 

"One day I had killed a deer and carried it to camp, leaving the en- 
trails and head lying in the woods where the deer had fallen. The next day 
I happened to return near the same spot toward dusk. I heard animals 
growling and quarreling and sneaked over near the spot to get a shot. Just 
as I was approaching over a little rise, a wolf met me face to face about 
thirty feet distant. The hair on his back bristled as he stood watching me. 

Pag-e seventeen 

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I do not know whether he would have advanced to the attack or not, but he 
looked dangerous, so I shot him instantly." 

On another occasion Mr. Hodges reports that he was walking along 
through a scanty growth of trees and brush late in the fall. The ground 
was covered with dry leaves and he was making considerable noise. He 
happened to stop for a moment and heard a rustling in the leaves, indi- 
cating the presence of something near him. He looked in every direction, 
but could see nothing. The noise continued, but he couldn't tell exactly 
from which direction it came. A moment later he saw something reddish- 
brown in color behind a manzanita bush twelve or fifteen feet from him. 
He thought it was a fawn so did not want to shoot. The rustling of the 
leaves continued, but he could not see what the animal was. Then he threw 
up his gun and fired. A big cougar jumped straight in the air with all four 
feet spread. The one shot killed the creature. Examination of the foot- 
prints showed the animal was crouched ready to spring, and the noise that 
Mr. Hodges heard was the long tail of the creature swinging from side 

to side. ■ 


(Since the publication of the list of sportsmen's organizations in Oregon 
in our April issue, we have received the following additions and changes. — 


Panhandle Bod & Gun Club. C. A. Buxton, President. B. E. Bowman, 
Secretary and Treasurer. 


Seaside Anglers' Club. Ben A. Childers, President. Clyde Mason, Vice- 
President. Lloyd Keys, Secretary-Treasurer. 


The Blue Mountain Eod & Gun Club. S. A. Laurance, President. W. L. 
Keizur, First Vice-President. W. J. Donaldson, Second Vice-President. 
E. W. Kimberling, Secretary. Andrew Eobinson, Treasurer. R. W. Hop- 
kins, Field Captain. 

The Union Rod & Gun Club of John Day and Canyon City. Cy J. 
Bingham, President. C. G. Guernsey, of Canyon City, and A. C. Martin, of 
John Day, First and Second Vice-Presidents, respectively. H. L. Kuhl, 
Secretary. F. S. Slater, Treasurer. A. D. Leedy, Field Captain. 


Nesmith Rod & Gun Club, Dallas. George Morton, President. T. C. 
Stockwell, Secretary. 


The Elgin Rod & Gun Club. Arthur Hallgarth, President. Joe Hall-, Vice-President. H. G. Masterson, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Union Rod & Gun Club. A. J. Crowley, President. L. A. Wright, Vice- 
President. Eugene Reuter, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Page eighteen 








The following is a list of predatory animals killed from 
October 1, 1913, to May 10, 1914, and upon which bounties have 
been paid out of the Game Protection Fund. For bobcats $1.00 
is paid in addition to $2.00 state bounty ; on cougar $15.00 in 
addition to the $10.00 allowed by the state ; on wolves $20.00 
in addition to the $5.00 by the state. 


Baker .... 
Clatsop . . . 




Gilliam . . . 


Harney . . . 
Hood River 
Josephine . 
Klamath . . 



Lincoln . . . 


Marion .... 
Morrow . . . 


Sherman . . 
Tillamook . 
Umatilla. . . . 


Wallowa . . 
Wasco .... 
Wheeler . . . 
Yamhill . . . 

Bob Cats 



• 305 

















Cougar Wolves 










Total 5564 155 

Total Amount Vouchered $5564.00 $2325.00 







































Mr. J. W. Herron, of Gold Hill, owns a reservoir at the edge of town 
which is thirty by forty feet and about five feet deep. He reports that he 
secured a pair of bass and liberated them in this pond. Last year Mr. Her- 
ron says he liberated five hundred young bass and has about two hundred 
and fifty of the young fish left. This shows that where conditions are 
favorable, one pair of bass will raise a very large family. It is a good 
example of what might be done in pond rearing of fish if more people were 
interested in the matter. 

Page nineteen 





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Fag-e twenty 

A Sportsman s 

Why arrest a man for killing one bird 
and allow a cat to kill fifty? 

Protect the quail, pheasants and other 
game birds by giving them a fair chance to 
rear their young. The cat is the arch en- 
emy of all song and game birds. You will 
find him in the field and in the thicket. 
He creeps stealthily and hunts by night and 
bv day. Game birds can never become 
abundant where the stray cat has free 

There are some good cats that are well 
cared for and do not wander away from 
home. A cat that goes away from home 
and hunts in the open is a public nuis- 
ance. As a general rule a good cat is a 
dead cat. 

Always Kill the Stray Cat! 



MAR 24 1917 


I 1 : ;j:,i!'i. 1 i..,: :i : i:':ii r ;;; ,ii .i : :n : i^ ' 



JULY 1914 

i '**■'" ; 


The Antelope, a Rapidly Decreasing' Game Animal 



By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II ] 

5c a copy— 50c a year 

[ Number 7 

mimm imiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiniii minim mmiiimii i urn 

^i:i : :ii;!!!:::;i:i^i;iiii:]!!;ii:iii:;iii:^! ! !';:u:.:!ii',:. : / ' i ; ; 




The Oregon Sportsman, July 1914 


The European or Hungarian Partridge — Editorial 3 

Fingerling Trout for Our Streams — Editorial 6 

Home of Brownsville Kod and Gun Club 9 

Bobcat Killed by a Wolf 9 

Record Chinook Salmon 9 

Raising Young Pheasants — 'Gene M. Simpson 10 

Deputy Game Wardens and the Closed Seasons 15 

(From American Field) 

Timber Wolf Trapped 16 

Rivers and Streams of Oregon — John Gill 17 

Notes from Counties 21 

The Boy and the Gun 25 

European or Hungarian Partridge 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II JULY 1914 Number 7 


The bird generally known as the European or Hungarian 
partridge (Perdix perdix) imported into Oregon from Europe, 
is also variously called the English, Gray, Bohemian and 
German partridge. All of these are in reality the same bird, 
although it is likely true that the partridges of Hungary and 
Bohemia are a little larger than those of Germany and 

This partridge ranges all through Europe. In size, \t is 
half way between a bobwhite quail and a ruffed grouse. From 
tip of bill to end of tail, it measures twelve to fourteen inches. 
The extent with wings spread is from eighteen to twenty-two 
inches, and the weight is from twelve to thirteen ounces. 
The plumage in both sexes is similar, gray and reddish brown, 
darker on the back and wings. The face is creamy-buff. 
The male, and sometimes the female, has a horseshoe-shaped 
patch of dark chestnut on the lower breast. Perhaps the 
most distinguishing feature of this bird when in flight is 
the reddish-brown color which shows when the tail feathers 
are spread. 

The European partridge is a bird of the field and gar- 
den. In Bohemia it lives to a large extent in the beet and 
hop fields where it feeds mostly on insects. Like the bob- 
white quail, the European partridge sleeps on the ground. The 
birds roost in a circle with their heads pointing outward so 
as to detect an enemy from any direction and scatter if in 

The partridge is not polygamous, but mates the same as 
quail. The nest is built on the ground under cover of a weed 
or bush. From ten to twenty eggs are laid. In a nest that 
was found last year near Salem, there were eighteen eggs, 
fifteen of which hatched. 

Fagre three 



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Mr. R. B. Horsfall reports that on June 9th. a brood 
of three young Hungarian partridges were seen on the Reed 
College campus in the City of Portland. The birds were 
two or three weeks old and flew a distance of about a 
hundred yards, showing the red tail spread wide. 

Mr. George Russell of Gaston also reports seeing a covey 
of young partridges in that locality. Other reports have come 
in, showing that without doubt the birds liberated last spring 
are thriving in their new Oregon home. 

The first shipment of ninety-seven partridges was im- 
ported into Oregon in 1900 and liberated in the Willamette 
Valley. Some of these were released in Marion County east 
of Salem, and these birds have held their own, although they 
have not increased remarkably in number. In the early part 
of 1913, two hundred and eighteen Hungarian or European 
partridges were purchased and liberated on the different 
game refuges in Oregon. During the past year, fifteen 
hundred and twenty-two of these partridges were liberated 

as follows : 


No. of Birds 

December 21, 1913 — Lewisburg 6 

January 23, 1914— Alsea 12 


March 3, 1914 — Astoria, Clatsop Plains.. 24 


March 5, 1914— Meldrum 12 

March 5, 1914 — Jennings Lodge 12 


March 2, 1914— Marshfield, Myrtle Point 12 

March 2, 1914— Marshfield, South Coos River 12 

March 2, 1914— Coquille , . 24 


March 7, 1914— Hay Creek 12 

March 12, 1914— Bend 12 


December 18, 1913— Yoncalla 12 

December 19, 1913— Riddle . 48 

December 30, 1913— Dillard 24 

December 30, 1913— Roseburg '. 48 

January 15, 1914 — Yoncalla 12 

Fag* four 



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January 18, 1914 — Canyonville 12 

March 11, 1914 — Roseburg, Curry Refuge 24 

March 11, 1914— Koseburg 24 


March 9, 1914— Burns 24 


February 28, 1914— Hood River 24 


December 19, 1913— Rogue River 36 

December 19, 1913— Ashland 36 

January 15, 1914 — Rogue River 24 

January 17, 1914 — Ashland 36 

January 18, 1914 — Jacksonville 24 

March 10, 1914 — Derby 12 

March 11, 1914— Ashland 24 


December 21, 1913 — Grants Pass 36 

March 3, 1914 — Grants Pass 12 


March 9, 1914 — Klamath Falls 60 


December 18, 1913— Eugene _ 48 

January 17, 1914 — Eugene 36 

February 4, 1914 — Cottage Grove 12 

February 4, 1914 — Cottage Grove 12 

March 1, 1914 — Cottage Grove 36 


December 20, 1913 — Salem, Asylum Farm 36 

December 29, 1913— Silverton 48 

January 16, 1914 — Silverton 24 

March 3, 1914— Pratum 24 


March 8, 1914— Heppner 12 


December 26, 1913— Portland 8 

December 26, 1913— Portland 8 

March 5, 1914— Portland 24 


December 18, 1913— Park Refuge 12 

January 15, 1914 — Park Refuge 12 

January 19, 1914 — Suver 12 


March 4, 1914— Tillamook • 24 


March 2, 1914— Athena 24 

March 2, 1914— Pendleton 24 

Page five 




March 2, 1914— Stanfield 24 

March 4, 1914 — Hermiston 12 

March 8, 1914— Pendleton 24 


March 2, 1914— LaGrande 96 


March 1, 1914— Joseph 72 


December 22, 1913— Gaston 24 

March 11, 1914— Dilley 12 

March 12, 1914— Gaston 48 

March 12, 1914— Hillsboro 12 


March 5, 1914— Fossil 12 


December 29, 1913 — McMinnville, Alderman Refuge 12 

December 29, 1914 — McMinnville, Lownsdale Refuge 12 

March 4, 1914 — McMinnville 12 

March 4, 1914 — McMinnville, Carlton Refuge 24 

Total number of birds 1522 

It is especially desired that sportsmen in various parts 

of the state report as to how these birds are doing in their 


When the Fish and Game Commission was established 
in 1911, a careful investigation was made toward securing as 
many trout eggs as possible to hatch and liberate in various 
waters of the state. The native species of trout are the 
rainbow or steelhead, the cutthroat or blackspotted and 
the Dolly Varden. The Dolly Varden trout has not been 
propagated in this state on account of its voracious appetite 
for other fish. 

The rainbow trout or "red-side" as it is known in the 
McKenzie and Deschutes Rivers, is by far the best fish in the 
state from the sportsman's standpoint, and upon this fish the 
Commission is spending its greatest effort to secure fry and 
stock the various streams of the state. 

The Steelhead and the Rainbow. 

There has always been a question in' the minds of some 
of the sportsmen as to the relative value of the eggs of the 

Pagr© six 

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steelhead trout and the rainbow. As a matter of fact, there 
is mo scientific difference between the steelhead and the 
rainbow. They are one and the same species. However, a 
steelhead is a rainbow that during a part of the year fre- 
quents the salt water. It apparently goes to sea for a while in 
search of food and then returns to fresh water to spawn.- 
It may well be called a "sea-run" rainbow. A good example of 
the steelhead is the fish that runs in the mouth of the 
Kogue River in the winter and spawns in the early 
spring. A similar run of fish enters Tillamook Bay and 
tributary streams, especially the Trask River, also the Colum- 
bia River and such tributaries as the Willamette, Clackamas 
and Sandy Rivers. 

A rainbow or red-side, strictly speaking, may be called 
a fish that stays in fresh water practically the entire year. 
Perhaps the best example of these fish are those that live 
in Klamath River and run up Spencer Creek and other such 
tributaries to spawn. Some of the best rainbow eggs secured 
in this state are also taken from the fish that live in Odell 
Lake and Davis Lake, headwaters of the Deschutes River. 
These two lakes are joined by Davis Creek and in one case 
the fish run out of Odell Lake down stream to spawn, and 
from Davis Lake the fish run up stream to spawn. During 
the past year, 1,212,000 rainbow eggs were taken at the 
station at Spencer Creek, while 614,700 eggs were taken at 
Odell Lake station. ~\ 

Eggs From Wild Fish. i 

The trout eggs that are taken in this way from the wild 
fish are the very best that can be secured for stocking pur- 
poses. The effort of the Fish and Game Commission has 
been to secure such eggs from wild stock in every available 
place. Yet the experience of three years shows that on ac- 
count of natural difficulties arising, such as washing out of 
racks by high water, it is impossible to secure enough eggs 
from wild trout. In fact, during the past three seasons, the 
Commission has been compelled to purchase a large number 
of trout eggs from Colorado, Montana and other states. The 
purchase of outside eggs has been unsatisfactory, especially 

Page seven 


during the present season when an order of a million was 
secured from Colorado. The best trout eggs come from a 
three year old fish. It was discovered that the eggs purchased 
this year came from six year old fish, and as a result, the 
fingerlings lacked vitality and the larger part of them died. 

This and other experiences have led the Commission to 
build ponds at the different stations, such as Bonneville and 
the McKenzie River hatcheries, and establish brood schools 
of trout. 

The question arises as to whether the eggs of the red- 
sides taken at Odell Lake or Spencer Creek station, hatched 
and liberated in our streams, are more valuable than eggs of 
the steelhead taken at Trask River or Rogue River, hatched 
and liberated. Some sportsmen have ventured the opinion that 
when the eggs of the "sea-run" fish are used, the fingerlings 
return to the sea and do not furnish such fishing as if they 
remained in the headwaters. Our experience shows that the 
eggs from the "sea-run" rainbows make hardier fry and fry 
that are more easily transported from one part of the state 
to another, and when these fish are planted near the head- 
waters of streams, the larger part of them remain in the higher 
waters until they are good sized fish. They are gamey and 
unsurpassed in the quality of flesh. 

During the past season 3,634,300 steelhead eggs have been 
collected at the three stations on Trask River, Sandy River 
and the Umpqua River. It has been the policy of the Com- 
mission to liberate young steelheads either in the high moun- 
tain lakes or near the headwaters of rivers and creeks. 

Eastern Brook Trout. 

During the past three years an average of about a million 
eggs of the eastern brook trout have been purchased each 
season and the fry liberated in the various streams of the 
state. In some of the higher mountain meadow streams and 
also some of the mountain lakes of the state, the introduction 
of these fish has been a marked success. Yet in other places, 
it has been a failure. For this reason, the Fish and Game 
Commission does not intend to use Eastern brook trout except 
to a limited extent. 

Fag-e eight 




O E E G O N 


— — — — — — 


Cutthroat trout eggs are taken each year from one of 
the Coast streams, but the best spawning station for these 
fish is at Strawberry Lake in Grant County, where 102,540 eggs 
have been taken to date, and the spawning season is not 
yet ended. 

Home of the Brownsville Rod and Gun Club — Organized March 6, 1913. The 
Tirst Anniversary Was Celebrated in the New Club House With 167 


George H. Moody, of McKenzie Bridge, reports that on the 20th day of 
January, 1914, he found that a bobcat had been caught in one of his 
traps. The tracks in the snow showed that a wolf had attacked the cat 
and crushed its skull. The wolf had then carried the cat and drag for several 
hundred yards. Mr Moody sent the cat skull to the office of the Fish and 
Game Commission and it is at present in the state collection. 


The largest Chinook salmon caught in the Columbia River during the 
present season was reported by H. P. Nelson, of Frankfort, Washington. 
The fish was caught in a gill-net and was sold to the J. G. Megler cannery. 
It weighed eighty-seven pounds, measured thirty-four inches around the 
belly and was four and a half feet long. The fish is to be exhibited at 
the Panama-Pacific Exposition. 

Peter* nine 

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Superintendent of the State Game Farm 

(Note — Last month we published an article entitled "Pheasant Farming," 
by Mr. Simpson, which attracted considerable attention. This article is a 
continuation of last month's article and will be found equally valuable to 
those interested in pheasant propagation. On page ten, line nine, of last 
month's issue an error was made in printing 130° instead of 103°. — Editor.) 

^When forty-eight hours old, the young pheasant may be fed sparingly 
on hard-boiled eggs chopped fine with a little green onion tops, fresh- 
ground lean meat crumbled with shorts or corn meal, and later dry chick 
food, boiled rice and curd. A custard made of eggs and milk and cooked 
in the usual manner is also an excellent food for young pheasants. 

There is no trouble about hatching pheasants. Feeding is the most 
serious problem. Don't try to experiment with foods. After the pheasants 
are a month old, feed the chopped meat rolled with shorts, as I have 
described and gradually change to a wheat diet. A stalk of lettuce hung 
in the pen so that they can reach it will be relished. A tuft of grass sod 
will be a pleasing variety. A few fish worms or grasshoppers thrown 
into the pen will be eagerly devoured. Pheasants, like chickens, require 
grit. It is also a good plan to give them a little charcoal occasionally. 
In short, the grown pheasant may be fed the same as a chicken, but 
being insectivorous, meat, insects and worms given occasionally are 
desirable additions to his menu. 

After the first year's experience you will be encouraged to branch 
out, and rear pheasants on a larger scale; and if you have any love for 
birds, and particularly if there is any blood of the sportsman in your 
veins, you will surely enjoy raising pheasants. It is a most interesting 
occupation and the little time you will give to it will amply repay you in 
the pleasure you receive. 


The most successful method of feeding young pheasants is with the 
larvae of the common blue fly (maggots). When this food is used, nothing 
else need be fed except greens occasionally until the birds are a month old. 
However, the chick food or cracked wheat should be kept before them 
that they may learn to eat it and be prepared to adapt themselves to the 
whole wheat diet when the larvae food has been discontinued, which 
should be done gradually. 

The objection to the larvae food is the offensive odor ordinarily 
associated with it. This may be overcome by raising the larvae scientific- 
ally. Contrary to the commonly accepted idea, the larvae of the fly prefer 
fresh to decaying meat. 

If the following method is employed, there will be little or no odor. 
Secure a quantity of green bone and meat trimmings coarsely ground 

Faff* ten 

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together. Take a tin pan with straight sides at least three inches deep 
and cover the bottom with shorts, bran or fine dirt, preferably bran, as 
the shorts have a tendency to pack. Place the bone and meat mixture 
on the bran and leave where the flies have access to it. In warm weather 
the fly eggs will hatch in about two days' time and the bone mixture 
will be partially dried up. The larvae are averse to strong light and 
will be found to have gone to the bran. They must now have something 
to feed upon. Remove the mixture and place thin slices of fresh 
liver on the bran. Turn the bone mixture back on top of the slices of 
liver. In a few hours the larvae will all leave the bone mixture and 
be under and feeding upon the liver. After this the bone mixture should 
be thrown awav. 

Young- Chinese or Ring-Necked Pheasants at State Game Farm 

In a day's time the liver will be eaten to shreds and must be replaced 
with a fresh supply of thinly sliced liver or fresh meat, and so on each 
day. until the larvae are practically full grown. This will take nearly 
a week's time and they may then be fed to the young pheasants. The 
larvae must be fed on liver or meat so long as they are on hand. As soon 
as they are matured they will descend into the bran or dirt and change 
into the pupa state, in which condition they are equally as good for 
feed as when alive. In feeding the liver or meat, feed only enough to be 
consumed in twenty-four hours' time. "The assimilating power of the 
larvae is so great that it can change every particle of meat or liver (except 
fibre) to larvae, consequently there can be no smell." The object in 
cutting the liver or meat thin is that it may all be consumed before 
having time to become tainted. Keep an extra supply of liver in a cool 
place. A little charcoal, such as is used to feed chickens, sprinkled over 
and under it, will tend to keep it fresh. 

In order to keep a supply of larvae, it will be necessary to put out new 
pans of bone every few days, depending on quantity, the number of 

Fa^« eleven 




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pheasants you have and the state of the weather. The warmer the weather, 
the more rapid the development of the larvae. If you contemplate using 
larvae, you should start with the bone mixture a week prior to the date 
of first hatching. 

The advantage of this food is that you need not hesitate to feed young 
birds all they will eat. They are eager for it and will frequently crowd 
their crops and throats to overflowing with no apparent bad results. They 

thrive better on this food than on any- 
thing else. Other methods may be em- 
ployed to produce the larvae, but it should 
be remembered that but fifteen days' time 
elapses from the laying of the fly egg un- 
til it has become larvae, entered the pupa 
stage and turned into a fly again. The 
larvae are clean feeders and they must 
have a medium in which to bury them- 
selves. In ten days they pass into the 
pupa state, in which form they may be 

kept if stored at a low temperature, (40 
Beeves Pheasant Chick degree F); ^ 1qw temperature stops the 


Should the pan of shorts, bran or dirt become heated, it means that 
the larvae are too crowded and will leave if possible. A part should be 
removed to another pan or given a larger proportion of shorts, bran or dirt. 

With the facts above, your own ingenuity and some experience will 
suggest convenient methods for producing larvae, but remember that the 
pheasant is primarily an insect-eating bird and the larvae is a natural 
food. As stated, custard, eggs, etc., may be used successfully, but they 
are substitutes. When the birds are two weeks old, chopped meat may 
be gradually substituted for the larvae until, when a month old, the larvae 
may be discontinued altogether. A good way to prepare the meat is to 
chop it fine with a sharp chopper and then mix shorts with it, rolling it 
between the hands until it crumbles. After the birds are a month old, 
they may be fed cracked wheat (soft wheat is best) with a little charcoal 
or grit alternating with the meat diet. The meat may be discontinued 
after two months, except that it is not a bad plan to give them a little 
of it once or twice a week for another month. From this time on, they 
may be fed the same as chickens, except that their nature demands more 
insects, and if these are not supplied naturally they will do better if given 
feed of the chopped meat and shorts every week or ten days until they 
are grown. 


For the purpose of furnishing a cheap supply of fresh meat to be 
fed to the young birds direct, and for material for the propagation of fly 

Page twelve 



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S M A N 

larvae also, New Zealand hares may be used. They are somewhat larger 
than the common Belgian hare, not so quarrelsome when many are yarded 
together and are easier to breed to a uniform color. They are very prolific 
and can be propagated during the fall and winter months, at which time 
good use may be made of the same brood coops in which pheasants were 
reared during the summer. 

Several pounds of fresh meat may be obtained from one animal 
run through a small meat grinder and fed direct to the young pheasants, 
taking the place of other chopped meat. The remainder of the carcass, 
excepting the skin, which has a commercial value, is consigned to the 
"bug house" for the flies to work upon. By propagating hares for this 
purpose, one not only has a supply of fresh meat when he wants it, and 
in just the quantity desired, but he is sure of its being fresh. Nothing is 
more fatal to young pheasants than putrid meat that has been treated 
with a preservative, such as sodium sulphite. These preservatives appear 
under various trade names on the market. These trade names also cause 
the purchaser to think that he is getting something different than he had 
before. Some of the samples are colored with a coal tar dye. These 
preservatives are often used in making hamburg steak. This can be 
readily detected by noticing the color of the meat as the butcher breaks 
it from the pile on the counter. Meat preserved with it shows a bright 
red color, but the portion not in contact with the air is much darker as a 
rule. After it has been in contact with the air for a few minutes, it will 
also assume the same bright color. Sodium sulphite is sold under such 
names as "Freezum, " "Preservaline, " and l ' Freezine, ' ' also sometimes 
as "Anti Ferment." 

Green grass is essent- 
ial in every breeding 
pen. The birds require a 
certain amount to keep 
them in good laying con- 
dition. The egg-eating 
habit is not so apt to be 
contracted as where the 
pens are absolutely bare. 
In the absence of grass, 
green stuff may best be 
provided by spading up, 
sod and all, suitable turf 
from the outside, and giv- 
ing the birds a fresh 
shovelful every day. They 
will take delight in pick- 
ing it apart. Lawn clippings are not very good as they soon wilt and 
will scarcely be touched. 

'A Bird in the Hand". Silver 
Pheasant Chick 

Page thirteen 

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Until the pheasants are six weeks old they should be fed three times a 
day, then twice a day until grown, and after that once a day. 

Captivity seems to change the habits of the pheasant entirely. The 
hen rarely ever makes a pretense at laying in a nest, much less set and 
hatch a brood of young pheasants. The cock becomes decidedly polygamous 
and will instantly kill a young bird if placed in the same enclosure. The 
percentage of fertility of all pheasant eggs is remarkably great. It is not 
at all uncommon for every egg to hatch, and the writer has for many 
years mated from four to six hens with one cock, the latter number 
invariably when the yard is sufficiently large. 

In captivity a single Chinese pheasant hen has been known to lay 
one hundred and four eggs in one season, extending from April 1st to 
September 1st, but sixty eggs is perhaps a fair average. In the wild state, 
the pheasant seldom roosts in a tree, and then only in one that is open, so 
it is in confinement. While they may stay in the shedded part of their 
pen in the day time, just at dusk they select a place with an open sky above 
them in which to pass the night, and this too, regardless of the inclemency 
of the weather. They seem to be indifferent to snow and rain, and appear 
none the worse for the drenching. They commonly roost on the ground with 
feathers drawn down tight to the body. 


The enemies of the chicken yard are likewise the enemies of the 
pheasants. A shotgun is a valuable implement in pheasant farming, but 
keep it where you can get it quickly. 

Wage continuous war on rats. Of all the predatory animals the game 
breeder has to contend with, he will find the rat the hardest to combat. 
Rats are more apt to be found around a pheasant yard than a chicken 
yard. It is easy to regulate the amount of feed given poultry, conse- 
quently none need be left on the ground to attract rats. Some pheasants, 
however, are so shy they will not eat until the attendant has scattered 
the food and gone away. Therefore it is necessary for the pheasant 
breeder to fight rats continually and by every method possible. I have 
tried steel traps, wire cage traps, poison, carbon bisulphide, gopher extermi- 
nators and various other remedies, but find nothing so effective as a 
" varmint' ' dog. 

If all buildings are up from the ground high enough to have full access 
and you have the right kind of a dog, he will take care of the rats as 
fast as they come. Whenever a rat hole is found in any part of the 
yards no time should be lost in digging it out. With the help of a good 
dog, a rat will rarely ever get away. An Airedale is the dog to have. 
These dogs take to hunting and killing rats naturally and willingly without 
guidance or training. 

Of the various members of the hawk family that prey upon game birds, 
perhaps the western red-tailed hawk, because of his abundance, is the 
most difficult to control. The Cooper hawk is another offender. When it 

Fag* fourteen 

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comes to destroying both game and other birds' nests the common crow 
heads the list. 

Cats are an abomination. Government statistics tell us that not two 
per cent of the eats are ratters and no cat ever lived that would not kill 
a young pheasant if given an opportunity. The prowling, semi-domesticated 
cat is the greatest destroyer of game birds among our four-footed animals. 
In this, perhaps the greatest Chinese pheasant country in the United States, 
the marauding cat kills more pheasants than all the illegal hunters. He 
is afield three hundred and sixty-five days in the year. 


Bear in mind that stale and decaying food and unclean drinking water 
in unclean drinking fountains are just the causes that breed disease germs. 
Pens in which birds have been kept for long periods of time also invite 
disease germs. All food not consumed should be removed from the pens 
each day. Whether you have many or few birds, arrange your pens so 
that they may have fresh ground to run on occasionally. 

All birds in their natural state frequently indulge in a dust bath. 
Lice and dust cannot exist together. Pyrethum powder is particularly 
disastrous to lice. Common road dust works in much the same way. From 
time to time place a quantity or road dust in a dry portion of the pen. 
Even the very small birds delight to wallow in this dust. It will be a good 
plan if you will store away in the fall of the year in a dry place a few 
barrels of dust to use the next spring before dust is obtainable from the 


(Editorial from American Field, May 30, 1914.) 
At this season of the year the deputy game warden has little to do 
looking after game law violators, but there is plenty for him to do in des- 
troying the enemies of game, and if he is under a regular monthly or 
yearly salary he should be required to faithfully put his time in this 
direction. Hawks, foxes, coons, coyotes, weasels, skunks, crows, the half- 
starved homeless house cat, and many self-hunting cur dogs destroy more 
game in a twelvemonth than is taken by sportsmen during the open 
season, for the enemies of game hunt the year round regardless of open 
or closed seasons, and some of them hunt three hundred and sixty-five 
days in the year and get game of some kind, or the eggs of the prairie 
chicken or quail, almost every day, while the sportsmen of the land — that 
is, those who are law-abiding — have only a short season when they may 
pursue game. 

The deputy game warden during the closed seasons on game should 
be afield in some part of his bailiwick six days out of the seven every 
week and devote this time arduously in clearing the fields and forests of 
game destroyers, either by shooting or trapping, or both; and these men 
should be required to make a report of their work to the district or state 

Pag-e fifteen 



warden, or state game commissioners, once a month, detailing the amount 
of work they have done and the number of game destroyers they have put 
out of business. 

If the predatory animals are well kept down in any locality the increase 
in game birds will be very noticeable, and it is much better to save the 
birds from destruction than to spend a similar amount of time and money 
in prosecuting men after the game has been unlawfully killed. We do not 
say that the men who violate the law by shooting out of season, by killing 
in excess of the bag limit established by law, or by unlawfully marketing 
game birds, should not be prosecuted and punished, for we believe they 
should, and that their punishment should be as great as the law permits; but 
we do say that time and money spent in destroying the enemies of game is 
more judiciously expended than that spent in prosecutions of violators of 
the law. 

By going over his territory frequently during the closed season in 
search of vermin, the deputy warden learns where many birds are nesting 
and knowing this he is better able to give them the protection they need. 
If he finds the nest of a prairie chicken, quail or duck that is not as 
well hidden as it might be, he can, in a very few minutes, place a little 
brush or an armful or two of weeds or grass in front of the less protected 
portion and thus aid the bird in its work of successful incubation, for the 
more securely a bird is hidden the less is the liability of her being dis- 
covered by her enemies, and the more certain she is of bringing forth a 
good brood of young. 

In Europe, on the big shootings there, where thousands of birds are 
reared every season, the game keeper and his assistants devote a great 
deal of their time during the propagating and rearing season to keeping 
down the vermin that prey upon the birds, and if this work is resorted to 
there and has been found to be profitable, it ought to be a good idea to 
try it thoroughly in this country. 


Mr. Ben S. Patton, deputy game warden at Estacada, Oregon, reports 
the trapping of another timber wolf on the 6th of June on the upper 
Clackamas River. This was a female, that evidently had a litter of pups. 
She was gray in color and of medium size. Mr. Patton writes as follows: 

1 ' The way we came to get this animal, Hugh Mendenhall killed a 
bear at this place a short time before, between the Clackamas and Colliwash 
Rivers. He skinned it and left the carcass. A few days after that he 
had occasion to go by this place again when he noticed that a lot of wolves 
had been there and eaten every scrap of the bear, even chewing up or 
packing off all the bones. He came down and told me of the occurrence and 
we gathered up nine traps, four of which were bear traps, and took them in 
and set them around the spot and left a lot of fish heads scattered around on 
the ground. In a few days we had a wolf." 

Page BixtMa 



■■iiw i iMiiHimiiMiiuiiiwiimiiioniiuiiiiiiiii nmn iiiiiiiiiihiiii n in iiinn ininnMiiiiminiininimnnimmiimim iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuininiiiiim»m«M~. 


With Some Descriptions of the Country, Fish and Fishing— Part 8 



This great branch of the Willamette with its three important 
tributaries — North, Middle and South Santiam — is famous 
fishing water. The North Fork is better known and more 
fished because of the railroad which penetrates almost to its 
source. Along this railroad are many towns at which the 
angler will find good fare. Mehama is about the beginning 
point for the fisherman, and at Terrell's hotel excellent accom- 
modations. The "Little North Fork" enters here, and is a 
lovely trout stream. The main river has yielded a good many 
salmon to two skillful fly fishermen of Mehama — John Irvine and 
Wm: Gordon. 

Farther eastward, toward Mount Jefferson, where the 
North Fork heads, is the famous Breitenbush with its hot springs, 
and other well stocked streams. The North Santiam is a big 
water but offers ready access to the fisherman in most parts of 
its course, and will pay for a visit to its waters. 

South Fork of Santiam is accessible only by wagon road 
from Lebanon, and its fifty miles of main river extending to 
the heart of the Cascades and the dozen large tributary streams, 
are similar in character and country to the North Santiam 
described above. There is doubtless much valuable information 
about this branch of the Santiam that would be of value to 
these notes on fishing, if the information were available. 


The next branch of the Willamette to the South is the 
unrivaled McKenzie, also to be reached in its best fishing 
waters only by a long tedious stage ride from Springfield. 
An old friend and master fisherman wrote me from Walterville, 
twelve miles above Springfield, this spring that he had had 
"fair sport," as he put it, with the fly — fourteen fish weighing 

Pag-© seventeen 




seventeen pounds. To any angler beginning at Walterville I 
strongly recommend William Gordon as a typical old-time 
sportsman, ready to help a novice and able to give him a 
master's advice. No man in Oregon ties a better fly or a 
finer leader, and he does repairing of rods most skilfully. 
Fifty miles farther into the mountains is Frizzell's where the 
huge Dolly Varden abound. This is an ideal mountain resort 
and well-spoken of, both for sport and comfort, by its many 
patrons who come from all over the country. The McKenzie 
ranks among the first-class fishing streams of the United 
States. The great trans-Cascade road, which follows the 
McKenzie to its source, gives access to Blue River, South Fork, 
Lost and Pine creeks, all grand streams, remote in the 

The favorite food of the Rainbow trout in the McKenzie 
is the stonefly, which hatches in the late summer and early 
fall, coming out from the water in the larval stage and hiding 
among the rocks of the shore, where it shortly emerges from 
the shell as the mature insect in the form of a gauze-winged, 
soft-bodied fly, which gathers in great numbers 01. the branches 
of willows along the stream. Flies that light or fall upon the 
water are eagerly seized by trout, which frequent the shallows 
along shore at this time for the purpose of feeding upon the 

An artificial fly resembling this stonefly is the most suc- 
cessful cast, but inferior to the natural insect. A party of 
sportsmen, returning from the upper waters of the McKenzie 
late in September, 1913, report remarkably fine fishing at 
McKenzie Bridge and Frizzell's, where a large number of 
fishermen enjoyed great sport. Their catches were made 
mostly by using the stonefly, carefully hooked, with wings 
spread, and very lightly cast. Rainbows of two pounds and 
upwards fell to the lot of several of these gentlemen daily, and 
many smaller fish, so that a four-automobile party had all the 
fish they cared to use daily for a week. 

The Dolly Varden does not rise readily to the fly in the 
Cascade streams, but skilful fishermen catch monsters with 
salmon eggs. 

Page eighteen 




Doubtless, fishing on the McKenzie will be found to cor- 
respond with that on the waters of other large rivers of the 
Cascades mentioned above. Fly-fishing proper is better in the 
earlier months of summer on the McKenzie. The fish reject 
the artificial fly later because of the abundance of natural 
fly food. 

A swing around southward and west, over the Middle, 
South and Coast forks of the Willamette — all grand streams — 
and then northward on the west side to Corvallis, and we 
come to Mary's River and on up to Philomath and then fifteen 
miles stage or wagon to Alsea, on the river of the same name. 
This is a good stream from source to mouth, but little fished 
and hard to reach. Still more remote, ten miles south of the 
outlet of Alsea, is Yachats, a river which will satisfy the 
longings of the most greedy angler. All this region south of 
Mary's Peak is also abundant in deer and bear from mountain 
summits to ocean. It can be reached conveniently by beach 
roads from Newport. 

West of Corvallis, by the C. & E., down Yaquina River, 
which offers little fishing, we reach Elk City, head of tidewater. 
Here comes in the Big Elk, the larger fork of Yaquina, on 
which, either trolling from a boat for sea trout, or a few miles 
farther up at Parker's, fly fishing, I have enjoyed real sport. 

At Toledo, ten miles up from the bay, one can take a stage 
ten miles further to the Siletz agency and from that point 
reach good fishing on the upper waters of Siletz. Mr. Wallis 
Nash of Nashville on the C. & E. road, tells me of great sport 
on Siletz. There is a road in from Nashville. At Elk Creek 
May's hotel affords a comfortable base, and there are good 
accommodations also at Siletz. 

Seven miles south of Newport a small river known as 
Elsa's River or the Beaver, affords fine fishing and big fish 
at times, but there are local traits and tricks that it is profitable 
to find out. 

We have now made the tour of the Willamette waters, 
except Luckiamute, reached from Falls City and the South 
Yamhill and Willamina, which are accessible from Sheridan. 

Page nineteen 


South of the Willamette, the two great rivers, famous in 
California as well as Oregon, are the Umpqua and the Rogue. 
The North Umpqua rises just west of Willamette's ultimate 
source, and with many mountain tributaries added, becomes a 
noble river at Winchester, on the S. P. R. R., famous for Chinook 
fishing with the rod. The conditions are similar to those of 
the Willamette at Oregon City, the Umpqua salmon being 
checked by the dam at Winchester. The upper Umpqua is 
extremely wild and little known to anglers, but must be a 
veritable paradise for the fishermen. It can be reached by 
road from Roseburg, though its more remote waters are only 
available to the camper by trails. Myrtle, Canyon and Cow 
(or Azalea) creeks — large branches of the South Umpqua — are 
more accessible from the S. P., and are lovely streams, well 
worth a visit. A short stage ride to Canyonville (from Myrtle 
Creek) will place an angler in a pleasant fishing region and 
with good old-fashioned accommodations. The town is on 
the old California stage road, which follows the river here for 
many miles. Another splendid stream is the West Fork, coming 
out of the high mountains which lie between the Rogue and 
Umpqua valleys. West Fork station on the S. P. is the base 
for operations there. Gold mining on several tributaries of 
the South Umpqua makes fishing rather less attractive than 
on the North Umpqua. 

Going farther south toward Rogue River several small 
creeks, once fine trout streams but now much damaged by 
mining, cross the railroad. At Grants Pass we strike Rogue 
River, and either above that city, or below, a stretch of a 
hundred miles, the Rogue and its larger tributaries afford 
wonderful fishing. 

We have not space to do justice here to the Rogue River 
and its rainbows, steelheads and chinooks. There are many 
comfortable places to stop and fishing waters at the doors of 
Woodville, Gold Hill and Tolo on the railroad. A good stage 
road follows the river pretty closely on its way up to Crater 
Lake, and, of course, as everywhere else, the fishing is most 

Pag-e twenty 






Two men from Baker who fished 
in Wallowa Lake last week caught 
thirty-seven fish weighing sixty-four 
pounds. One twenty-six inch rain- 
bow weighed eight pounds. 


P. Archibold, George Tripp, Eoy 
and Ed Bier returned recently from 
fishing on the Alsea. They report 
that the roads are good and the fish- 
ing fine. They made a catch of 
two hundred. Fifty of the trout 
were very large, some of them meas- 
uring seventeen inches. 

# * * 

C. C. Bryan, of Corvallis, reports 
the fishing in the streams in this 
county particularly good at this 
time. Anglers are now finding the 
fishing better in Marys River than 
ever before, due to the fact that a 
fishway was installed at the Fischer 
dam last year. Some of the trout 
caught were fifteen inches in length, 
chub being used for bait. 

* * * 

John Winkle and Caleb Davis, of 
Corvallis, made a catch of one hun- 
dred trout a short time ago near 


Tom Kienzel reports that during 
the winter he trapped about Clack- 
amas Lake near the summit of the 
Cascades and got the following an- 
imals: 2 cross foxes, 23 marten, 
7 mink, 1 otter, 1 bobcat, 7 weasel, 

(white), 7 skunk (large). Mr. Kien- 
zel also reports that a small band of 
elk wintered on the White River a 

little southeast of Mt. Hood. 

* * * 

John Howland caught four bear and 
Hugh Mendenhall one on the upper 
Clackamas. The pelts were unusual- 
ly good. The fur was long and even 
and had not begun to shed. 


A large cougar was brought into 
Oregon City on June 20th. It was 
killed by W. A. Jones, W. M. Un- 
derwood, Jack Tucker and Warren 
Barr three miles south of Estacada 


Mr. A. 0. Godfrey reports that 
fishing in the Necanicum, Lewis 
and Clark and Nehalem Rivers is 
very good this year. During the 
months of April and May there were 
a good many trout caught in the 
Seaside Meadow. Jack Cullison, of 
Portland, made a good catch last 
Sunday. Mr. Godfrey also reports 
huckleberries are ripe earlier this 
year and plentiful. 


A. J. Sherwood, President of the 
Coquille Rod and Gun Club, writes 
as follows: 

"The Hungarian partridges which 
were released in the Fairview sec- 
tion about ten miles from here have 
been seen in pair«> in various parts 
of the valley this spring. There is 
hardly a farmer who comes in from 
that locality who has not seen a pair 

Pa^e twenty-one 

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of these birds. Some of the Chinese 
pheasant cocks released in the same 
vicinity have been heard crowing 
at different places in the valley 
and have been often seen. 

"A logger told me that three 
miles south and west of Coquille, a 
Chinese pheasant hen hatched nine 
chicks. He counted them as they 
crossed the road. While he was 
watching them a hawk picked up 
one and flew awaj^. However, I 
think the tame cats gone wild are 
the greatest enemies of these game 
birds in this locality. We have sev- 
eral sportsmen here who will miss 
a shot at a quail any time during 
the open season for the sake of 
getting one at a cat or a hawk." 


The recent elimination of thous- 
and of acres of land from Fremont 
and Paulina National Forests great- 
ly restricts the winter and early 
spring range of mule deer and ante- 
lope on the Deschutes Game Reser- 
vation. As this territory is being 
rapidly settled by homesteaders, it 
makes it very difficult to protect the 
number of these animals that re- 


Mr. and Mrs. W. M. Umbdenstock, 
of Portland, recently returned from 
a trip into Curry county. They re- 
port splendid fishing. They stopped 
at Mr. George Billings' place, Marial 
P. O., on Mule Creek. Mr. Bill 
ings' place is well known to sports- 
men for its hospitality and accom- 


Plans are already under way for 
the second annual barbecue of the 
Riddle Rod and Gun Club. The date 
has been set for Labor Day, Mon- 
day, September the 7th. The Rid- 
dle club is one of the largest or- 
ganizations in the state. If the 
second barbecue is as successful as 
the one last year, it should attract 
sportsmen from all over the state. 
The membership of the Riddle club 
is now 269. 

* * * 

Tom Meacham recently had a very 
interesting experience witnessing a 
fight between two cougars while on 
a trip up Smith River north of 
Drain. He succeeded in killing one 
of the animals. 

A. J. Foster, Assessor of Lake 
county, Hi Adams, Ben Green and 
William Wolfe made a hunting trip 
twenty miles northwest of Silver 
Lake and camped at Tobin's cabin. 
In the six days' hunt they killed six 
bear — one, a very large female, was 
colored white on the breast. They 
report splendid trout fishing in that 

C. L. and S. L. Barger, M. J. and 
C. D. Shoemaker, business men of 
Roseburg, in two days' time, caught 
four hundred trout ranging in length 
from six to twelve inches, at Brews- 
ter, in the middle branch of the 

Coquille River. 

* * * 

A. L.Carter, W. Cordon and J. D. 
Richburg, while fishing in Union 
Creek, which is located in Cow 

Pag-e twenty -two 




Creek Canyon, caught 196 fine trout 
from six to twelve inches long. 

* * # 

M. Josephson, Secretary of the 
Eoseburg Commercial Club, reports 
that he is receiving numerous in- 
quires from sportsmen in Seattle, 
Portland and San Francisco as to 
the fishing in Douglas county. He 
expects to have several parties from 
these places during July. 

* * * 

Eev. Paul Lux and Mr. Max 
Meyer, on a fishing trip up the 
Calapooia, together caught forty-five 
trout in an hour, the largest being 
about fifteen inches long. They 
used Eoyal Coachman black fly. 
They tried salmon eggs, but found 
the fish took the fly better. 

* * * 

On May 3rd, Walter Gordon 
and Burr Jones were fishing near 
the forks of the North and South 
Umpqua Eivers about six miles 
from Eoseburg. Gordon landed two 
very fine Chinook salmon, one 
weighing forty-three pounds, the 
other thirty-nine pounds. Jones 
caught one weighing thirty-seven 
and one-half pounds, all with troll- 
ing line and spoon. 


It has been suggested that Blue 
Eiver, Quartz Creek and Deer Creek 
should be closed to fishing for a 
year or so in order to give the small 
fish in these streams a chance to 
grow. These streams are natural- 
spawning places for a large number 
of McKenzie rainbows. 

den of Eugene, who has just re- 
turned from a trip through the upper 
McKenzie valley, reports that a big 
buck spent an entire day in the 
barnyard at H. A. Cook's place 
above Vida; also that Carey Thomp- 
son saw a deer eating salt with the 
cattle in his barnyard. 

* * #• 

Probably the largest fish caught 
this season in local waters was land- 
ed by Amos Hills on the Upper Wil- 
lamette, being a Dolly Varden weigh- 
ing twenty-three pounds. The fish 
measured thirty-four inches in 


* # * 

Jay McCormick, George Nicholls 
and Walter Kirk landed one hundred 
and twenty-eight trout in a day and 
a half's fishing in the Upper Wil- 
lamette, catching ninety-two fish the 
first day and thirty-seven the second. 
The largest of the catch was seven- 
teen inches in length and weighed 
a pound and a half. 

* * * 

Ethar Collins, of Eugene, fishing 
in the north fork of the Siuslaw, 
five miles above Florence, caught 
an average of twenty-five trout 
each day. 

* * * 

Earl Stanley Smith, of the Eugene 
Abstract Company, caught a "red- 
side" or rainbow trout a short time 
ago in the McKenzie Eiver. The 
fish weighed two pounds, nine 
ounces and was nineteen and one 
half inches long. It was caught 
below the hatchery at Vida. 

Mr. E. C. Hills, deputy game war- Trappers and sportsmen in the 

Pag"e twenty-three 

illlllllllllllllllliilllllllllllllllllllllillHI Mill Illil HUM Illlllllllilllllllllllllllllllllllllll 

H E 

O R E a O N 


Upper McKenzie River country re- 
port that deer are more plentiful 
than ever before. 


Mr. F. H. Fawcett, of Narrows, 
Oregon, reports that there are many 
more Canada geese on the Malheur 
Lake reservation than for the past 
two seasons. They mated and began 
laying early in March, whereas last 
year the first nest that was seen was 
on April 7th. 

During the first part of April 
many swan were seen about the 
lake. The wapato seems to be the 
chief food. 

The lake fish that usually spawn 
about the first of April began 
spawning about the 20th of March. 
These fish run in the Spring Branch 
near where the Blitzen River enters 
the reserve. The run usually lasts 
from three to five days. The fish 
range from six to thirteen inches in 

The great blue herons began build- 
ing their nests on March 11th and 
were laying by March 16th. Last 
year they did not begin nest build- 
ing until about April 7th. The lake 
was not free from ice until after 
that time. 

* * * 
Mr. I. B. Hazeltine has been 
preaching the gos.pel of " co-opera- 
tion ' ' to the sportsmen of Grant 
county, with the result that two 
large and important organizations 
have recently bercn formed. The 
Union Rod and Gun Club, of John 
Day and Canyon City, was organ- 
ized in the latter place the evening 
of Tuesday, April 7th. Forest Su- 


pervisor Cy J. Bingham, who has 
been one of Oregon's most consis- 
tent advocates of game conserva- 
tion and law enforcement, was 
elected president, while C. G. Guern- 
sey, of Canyon City, and A. C. Mar- 
tin, of John Day, were named as 
first and second vice-presidents re- 
spectively. H. L. Kuhl was chosen 
secretary, F. S. Slater, treasurer, 
and A. D. Leedy, field captain. 
Leedy is one of Eastern Oregon's 
pioneer trap-shooters and he will 
endeavor to develop a team capable 
of giving any amateur aggregation 
in the state a run for its money. 

The Blue Mountain Rod and Gun 
Club, of Prairie City, was organized 
Thursday evening, April 9th. The 
following officers were elected: S. 
R. Laurance, president; W. L. Kei- 
zur, first vice-president; W. J. Don- 
aldson, second vice-president; E. W. 
Kimberling, secretary; Andrew Rob- 
inson, treasurer, and R. W. Hopkins, 
field captain. 

Prosecuting Attorney Cozad, one 
of the most ardent sportsmen in the 
entire state of Oregon, took a prom- 
inent part in the formation of both 
organizations, the members of which 
pledge themselves to a faithful ob- 
servance of the game laws and to 
report all violations coming under 
their observation. 


E. B. Berlin, W. H. Anderson, Ray 
Woolsey and Peter Hoffman, the 
first party to go into Badger Lake 

this season, returned with one 
hundred and ninety big rainbow 

Page twenty-four 

The Boy 
and the Gun 

It is unlawful for a boy under the age 
of fourteen to hunt with a gun in this state 
on lands not his own or those of a parent, 
relative or guardian. The child who lives 
in the city and attends the city schools for 
nine months in the year needs a good spell 
of outdoor life along the seashore or in the 
mountains for the summer season. But a 
gun is not essential to his having a good 

Many boys are naturally destructive 
and careless.. Some parents make the mis- 
take of buying the small boy a gun. While 
there are no objections to teaching the boy 
the careful use of firearms, yet placing a 
gun in his hands and allowing him the free- 
dom of all outdoors without the restriction 
of older people, is dangerous for a boy and 
most dangerous for other people. The 
child needs the lessons of conservation far 
more than he needs the means of des- 

Keep the Gun Out of the Hands of the 
Small Boy 

45y V^ 

MAR 24 1917 



AUGUST, 1914 

Does and Pawns Protected Iby the Oregon Law 



By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II ] 

5c a copy — 50c a year 

[Number 8 

i in ii n hi mi mi n i ii 1 1 1 1 1 1 ii i m 1 1 ! i p 1 1 1 h i i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■ i i i ■ 1 1 1 f m t M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i ■ ■ i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 )■ 1 1 1 1 ) l ■ 1 1 1 r ■ 1 1 1 1 1 : ~ 




The Oregon Sportsman, August, 1914 
Copyright 1914, by William L. Finley 


The Penitentiary Awaits Him — Editorial 1 

Guard Against Accidental Shooting — Editorial 2 

The Open Season for Deer 3 

Pheasant Chicks in Town — One Illustration 4 

The White-tailed and Other Deer in Oregon — 

By Stanley G. Jewett — Three Illustrations 5 

Ninth Pacific Coast Handicap 9 

Multnomah Anglers ' Casting Tournament 10 

Stocking Cascade Mountain Lakes — Part I 

By Glenn Johnson — Two Illustrations 11 

Eivers and Streams of Oregon — Part IX 

By John Gill 16 

La Grande Sportsmen's Banquet 20 

Angling Eecord from Eugene 20 

Warning 21 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II AUGUST, 1914 Number 8 


"We, the coroner's jury, find that Henry Olson was a native 
of Wisconsin, aged twenty-three years, and that he came to his 
death through a gunshot wound from a gun in the hands of Louis 
Dodge, of Ashland, carelessly fired." 

On the first day of the open season, a party of hunters from 
Ashland went into the Elk creek district for deer. One of the 
party, Louis Dodge, took Henry Olson, a homesteader, for a 
deer and killed him. It is the same old story of criminal care- 

County Attorney E. E. Kelly, backed by the sportsmen of 
Jackson county, will make a strong effort to set an example 
for careless hunters. A complaint has been sworn out against 
Dodge and he will be prosecuted for manslaughter. 

The time has come when the careless and irresponsible 
hunter must be checked. He is a menace to society. The State 
Board of Fish and Game Commissioners have strongly advised 
every deer hunter who goes into the mountains to wear a bright 
red shirt and a red hat. Some hunters have thought this ad- 
vice rather trivial, but it is better than the death penalty. 

One of the best game laws in the state is that which pro- 
vides for a closed season on all deer except those with horns. 
This law should be strictly enforced as a protection for those 
people who wish to go for an outing in the mountains. 

Whenever a hunter waits until he can see the horns and 
distinguish the difference between a buck and a doe, he will 
not be guilty of murdering his friend or his relative. 

Last Year's Record. 

During the open season for deer in 1913, five men were 
shot in Oregon, mistaken for deer. Wilbur Kime shot and 
killed George Bingham of Oregon City at Trail creek in Douglas 

Pag"© one 


county, just over the Jackson county line. A. P. Conger, of Jack- 
sonville, shot his brother Elmer through the lungs and killed him. 
Peter C. Christianson shot Albert A. Dixon through the thigh 
and crippled him in a frightful manner with a soft-nosed bullet. 
Fritz Gerbers shot Herman Schmidt of Grants Pass, and one 
of the Miller boys of Leland shot his elder brother. All five 
victims were hit by bullets intended for deer. 

During the early part of this year, there were two similar 
cases in Curry county. Edmond Eggers shot J. Bush on April 
1st on Sixes river, claiming he thought Bush was a deer. In- 
asmuch as the season for shooting deer was closed, Eggers was 
guilty both of violating game laws and of criminal carelessness. 
On February 1st, George L. Mayer shot Willard Isenhart, also 
in Curry county, claiming he mistook him for a wildcat. Both 
Eggers and Mayer are in jail awaiting trial. County Attorney 
Meredith says he will send them both to the penitentiary. 


The State Board of Fish and Game Commissioners recom- 
mends the following suggestion to be observed by sportsmen in 
the field to prevent accidental shooting and to relieve persons 
who are injured or lost in the forests and mountains. 

To prevent accidental shooting, every hunter should wear 
bright colored clothing, which can readily be identified from 
game birds and animals, especially when hunting deer in the 
forests. Since there is a marked contrast between red and the 
color of any game bird or animal that is hunted, this color will 
best serve the purpose. 

Hunters should never shoot at any object until absolutely 
positive of identification. It is dangerous to shoot at moving 
brush or leaves with the expectation of killing game. The mov- 
ing object may be illegal game, a domestic animal, or even a 
man. Never carry a loaded gun when in a conveyance or about 
the house. To prepare for an emergency, every hunter and ang- 
ler should carry in his pocket a piece of candle or matches in a 
water-tight match safe. In case of becoming lost or injured, one 
can readily start a camp fire. 

Page two 



When a man is lost or injured and needs help, a signal by 
shooting should be given. The signal is the firing of a gun once, 
with an intermission of ten seconds before the second shot, then 
an intermission of sixty seconds, then a third shot. If no answer 
is received, this signal should be repeated after an intermission 
of five minutes. The answer to this signal is a single shot from 
the rescuing party followed by one recognition shot from the 
lost man. 

Care should be taken to get the time between shots as ac- 
curate as possible. Hunters should keep in mind this signal 
and avoid, if possible, giving it when shooting at game. In the 
absence of a watch, the time can be judged with sufficient ac- 
curacy by counting ten between the first and second shots and 
sixty between the second and third shots. Whenever a shot is 
heard in the mountains, a hunter should count ten to determine 
whether it is a signal of distress or not. 

The person who is lost should, after hearing an answer to 
his signal, remain at the place where he gave the signal until 
the rescuing party arrives, otherwise he may take the opposite 
direction and not be found at all. 

The following is a condensed table of signals to be used by 
all sportsmen : 

Begin with 1 shot. Answer to signal by rescuing 

Wait 10 seconds, party, 1 shot. 

repeat 1 shot. ? 

Wait 60 seconds, Recognition of answer by man 

repeat 1 shot. lost, 1 shot. 

Wait 5 minutes before giving the second signal. 


The open season for killing deer with horns for the 
entire state begins August 1st and lasts through October 31st. All 
does and spotted fawns or young deer of the first year are pro- 
tected by the state law. There is no open season on elk, ante- 
lope or mountain sheep in Oregon. The limit for each hunter 
during the open season is three deer with horns. 

Page three 


It is well for sportsmen to bear in mind that each hunting 
license has three coupons attached. Whenever a deer is killed, 
one of these must be detached, signed and dated and tied to the 
carcass of the deer. One of these coupons must always accom- 
pany the carcass. It is unlawful after killing a deer to mutilate 
the carcass in any way so as to disguise the sex. It is also unlaw- 
ful for any person to have in possession more than forty pounds 
of dried venison. 


During the first week in June, two Chinese pheasant chicks about a 
day old were found in the early morning on the asphalt pavement of West- 
moreland in the city of Portland. They had been unable to follow the 
mother up the curbing. A few days later two more were found on the 
street in front of Reed College. The day after, another was found in the 
same bend in the street. In both cases, had the mother pheasant 
led her brood fifty feet to the right or left, some dried grasses or other 
obstructions in the gutter would have enabled the little ones to surmount 
the six or seven inches, which to them was a gigantic cliff. 

Pheasant Chick Unable to Get Over Curbing*. 

During the summer, a mother pheasant has led her one chick — or rather 
has been led by the baby — for it is always several feet ahead or off to one 
side. The rest of the brood were probably lost during the first few days 
after hatching. 

In another part of the city where a sewer was being dug, several baby 
pheasants fell into the ditch and would have died but for a friendly hand 
that arrived in time. 

These and other accidents show that the pheasant is not thoroughly 
accustomed to the dangers of city life. Yet for all this, there are more 
pheasants in the city of Portland than in any other city in the United 
States or perhaps in any city in the world. If the young pheasants were 
protected from the large number of stray house cats, these beautiful birds 
would be feeding in our dooryards. 

Fag-e four 





There are two species of deer that are common in Oregon ; the 
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) in the eastern part and 
the Columbian Black-tailed deer (Odocoileus Columbianus) in the 
western part. In addition to these we have a few White-tailed 
deer on both sides of the Cascade mountains. 

The White-tailed deer east of the Cascades is a sub-species of 
the common Virginia deer of the eastern states, while the one 
west of the Cascades is a distinct species which we will 
call the Oregon White-tailed deer. The first specimen known to 
science was killed near Oregon City during the early part of the 
last century. These two latter varieties are now extremely rare 
within the state of Oregon. 

The White-tailed deer (Odocoileus leucurus and Odocoileus 
virginianus macrourus) are intermediate in size between the other 
two. The tail is bushy and wedge-shaped, is snow white under- 
neath and on the edges, is held high and sways from side to side 
when the animal is running. The antlers rise from the forehead, 
then drop suddenly forward, with the beam almost horizontal 
From the beam three long, sharp tines or "points" rise per- 

The White-tailed deer, according to old residents, was form- 
erly common throughout the Willamette valley foothills. Mr. 
H. G. Davis, of Portland, informs me that this deer was very 
common in the foothills about Beaverton, in Washington county, 
during the years from 1860 to 1875. Mr. Henry Thompson, of 
Sweet Home, Linn county, under date of October 27th, 1913, says : 

"There used to be a few of them in the river bottom here 
about two miles above town, but I haven't seen or heard of them 
for several years." 

Mr. W. H. Baker, the Portland taxidermist, tells me he 
mounted several heads of White-tailed deer some years ago, 
but has had none the past few seasons. He says those he mounted 
were killed in the Willamette valley. 

Pag-e five 


Buck and Doe Oregon White-tailed Deer. 

Pagre six 


There are still a few of these deer along the North Umpqua 
river, in Douglas county, and in the Davis lake region of Crook 
county. Eeports concerning the occurrence of this deer have 
come from other sections, but there is no doubt that they 
are extremely rare at the present time. Every effort should be 
made to protect the few remaining White-tailed deer in Oregon 
or the species may soon become extinct. 

The Mule deer is the largest of the three and can be told from 
the others by the large ears, short white tail with a black tip, and 
the "Y" on the large antlers. The winter color is steel gray, 
changing to gray-brown in summer. 

In Oregon the Mule deer is found only east of the summit 
of the Cascade mountains. They were formerly abundant over 
the entire eastern portion of the state but are now restricted to 
the more mountainous sections. In the northeastern part of the 
state, and in Crook, Lake and Klamath counties, they are still 
fairly plentiful. In southern Harney and Malheur counties, only 
a small remnant of this noble game animal remains. In this sec- 
tion are the Steens mountains, an ideal range for this species, but 
several years ago hide hunters slaughtered them by the thous- 
ands until now only a few remain. Through the efforts of the 
State Game Warden, this range of mountains was set aside as a 
state game refuge by the last legislature and it is to be hoped 
that the Mule deer in this section will be left alone by hunters until 
their numbers are increased and they spread out over the surround- 
ing country. If this range is to be of any value in future as a 
game refuge, there should be some grazing restrictions. At 
present the entire range is being ruined by the unrestricted graz- 
ing of large herds of sheep. Two other reserves were created 
last year, in which the primary object was to protect Mule deer — 
one in Crook and Lake counties, and another in the Blue moun- 
tains, including parts of Baker and Wallowa counties. On this 
latter reserve are found, in addition to the goodly number of 
Mule deer, several head of elk and mountain sheep. The Mule 
deer ranges over more open country than other deer in localities 
where they are undisturbed. 

The Columbian Black-tailed deer is the smallest deer in Ore- 
gon, and about the same color as the Oregon White-tail. The 

Page seven 


antlers of the old bucks have the "Y" much the same as the Mule 
deer; the tail is wider, with the outer surface black all over and 
with a white underside and tip. 

Typical Horns of Three Species of Deer. 1. Mule Deer. 2. 
Black-tailed Deer. 3. White-tailed Deer. 


In the western part of the state we have this species. It is 
found from the Columbia river to the California line and east to 
the east slope of the Cascade mountains, where its range overlaps 
that of the Mule deer. These deer inhabit the dense forests, 
especially of the Coast range, and seldom feed in the open coun- 
try. They are known to eat the leaves of evergreen trees as well 
as to browse on deciduous foliage. 

The Black-tailed deer is common throughout its range, except 
in the more thickly settled parts of the Willamette valley. Large 
numbers are killed annually by sportsmen, especially in the 
southern counties. In the northern part of the state quite a num- 
ber are killed in the Cascades south of Bonneville and along the 
lower Columbia. 

According to reliable information, the live weight of a Black- 
tailed buck occasionally reaches 250 pounds. The Mule deer is 
much larger and sometimes weighs 350 pounds. 

The " rutting" season of all these deer is during October 
and November and one or two, occasionally three young are born 
in April and May. The young are spotted at birth and remain 
so until the hair is shed in the fall. 

We have very little data on the exact time of the shedding of 

Fagfe eig-ht 


antlers of these deer in Oregon. A two-year-old Black-tailed 
buck from Rogue river shed his antlers at the State Game Farm 
on January 23rd. On the other hand, a large buck at Oakridge, 
in the Cascades, was still carrying his antlers on February 28th. 
From information furnished by hunters, it would appear that the 
deer all shed their antlers during January, February and March. 

Tails of Three Species of Seer. 1. Columbian Black-tailed Deer. 

Deer. 3. White-tailed Deer. 

2. Mule 

A large White-tailed buck, which was shot for the collection of 
game animals for the Fish and Game Commission, had shed his 
antlers about a week previous to January 29th. The burrs had 
healed over with a tough, brown skin, but the new antlers had 
not started to develop. 


The Ninth Pacific Coast Handicap trapshooting contest was held at 
the new home of the Portland Gun Club July 20th, 21st and 22d. It was 
a marked success. In the main event there were a total of one hundred 
and thirty-eight entries and a hundred and thirty-four actual starters. 

The big handicap event was taken by Peter H. O'Brien of Portland, 
who captured the title of the best amateur shooter on the coast. O 'Brien 

Page nine 


and H. H. Ott, of Gresham, tied with a mark of 93 per cent, but in the 
shoot-off, O'Brien won. On the first day Don Morrison, of Portland, 
proved to be the best amateur with a record of 141 out of a possible 150. 
On the second day Frank Troeh, of Vancouver, Washington, showed best 
form at sixteen yards and went out with 95 per cent. Morrison was second 
with 94 and H. Wihlon took third amateur honors with 93. 

Among the professionals who attended the tournament, L. H. Reid, of 
Seattle, made the longest run, breaking 122 birds without a miss. He 
is considered one of the greatest trapshooters in the country. 


The July tournament brought forth some good records. The weather 
conditions were excellent and the entries seemed to be in the best con- 
dition, as the following record of scores will show: 

Light tackle dry fly accuracy was won by W. F. Backus with an 
average per cent of 99 11-15, which is a new record. Dr. L. L. Dubois, 
second average per cent 99 7-15. Warren Cornell, third average per cent 
99 2-15. 

Accuracy fly light rod at the 50, 55 and 60 foot rings. W. F. Backus, 

99 4-15. Dr. L. L Dubois, 98 2-15, while J Drennen, who made his initial 

appearance in the tournament, won third place with an average of 98 flat. 

Distance light fly rod. W. F. Backus, first, 89 feet. Dr. L. L Dubois, 

80 feet. Warren Cornell, 72 feet. 

Distance bait casting ^-ounce. Dr. E. C. McFarland average five 
casts, 89 4-5 feet. W. C. Block, average five casts, 89 3-5 feet. A. E. 
Burghduff, average five casts, 75 1-5 feet. Dr. E. C. McFarland made the 
longest individual cast of 118 feet, which is a new record for the ^-ounce 

Accuracy bait cast %-ounce. W. C. Block, average per cent 98 5-15. 
E. A. Armstrong another new man won second place in this event with an 
average per cent of 96 6-15. Dr. E. C. McFarland third, 95 5-15. 

Accuracy bait casting y 2 -ounce weight. W. C. Block, average per 
cent 98 5-15. Dr. E. C. McFarland, 97. E. A. Armstrong, 93 2-15 

Distance bait casting, y 2 -ounce weight. A. E. Burghduff broke all 
previous records both in longest distance individual cast of 171 feet and 
average for five casts of 149 4-5 feet. The previous record was held by 
Ray Winter whose longest cast was 154 feet and whose average for five 
casts was 123 1-5 feet. W. C. Block also broke the previous records with an 
average for five casts of 139 3-5 feet, whose longest individual cast was 
162 feet. Dr. E. C. McFarland third with an average of five casts of 
131 4-5 feet. 

These tournaments are held on the last Wednesday and Thursday of 
every month at the Oaks Bathing Pavillion. They are open for all comers. 
Anyone wishing to improve his ability with the rod will find an excellent 
opportunity here. 

Fag-e ten 




Part I 

(Note — In the Cascade mountains from the headwaters of the Clackamas 
south to the sources of the Rogue and Umpqua are many mountain lakes 
which contain no fish. The important work of stocking these waters with 
trout was begun in the summer of 1912 and has been carried on in the sum- 
mers of 1913 and 1914. Mr. Johnson assisted Mr. Mohler in the work during 
the summer of 1913 and his account of the various trips which we are pub- 
lishing in this issue and the next will give the reader a good idea of what 
is being done to increase the sport of angling in this mountainous section of 
the state. — Editor.) 

The Cascade mountains is a region of natural wonders and beauties. 
The people of the State of Oregon, however, are as yet, not fully aware 
of this fact. To be sure, we all know more or less about the country 
around Mt. Hood, and many are becoming acquainted with Mt. Jefferson 
and the fine lakes in that vicinity. But to the south of Mt. Jefferson 
lies a territory that will inspire awe in those who love the grand. Snow- 
capped mountains, small glaciers, deep canyons, rugged lava floes, and 
hundreds of wonderful lakes greet the visitor. The aesthetically inclined 
may also take pleasure in the pretty flowers that grow on the grass- 
covered meadows at various altitudes. The same flowers that bloom in 
June on the lower foothills are found in September in the high mountain 

The chief interest of those who tour the mountains, however, is in 
the excellent fishing and hunting. The United States Forestry Service 
has established trails to the various places in the mountains and is build- 
ing other trails from time to time. By means of these, the angler, hunter, 
or tourist can reach the chief points of interest. With added difficulty 
one may go off the main paths and find still better hunting and fishing 
in the less frequented haunts. To make the most of such a trip, one 
should devote the summer to it. Pack horses may be hired at Detroit, 
Albany, Eugene, Oakridge, Bend, or Eedmond, and the start may be made 
from anyone of these places. 

Certain men have taken these trips to the high Cascades season after 
season for the last twenty years, and still find pleasure in going over the 
same ground. The territory is so large and the places of attraction so 
numerous, that the true lover of nature never grows weary. Two men who 
have spent their summers in the Cascades for many consecutive years are 
L. J. Hicks, formerly of Hicks, Chatten Engraving Company, of Port- 
land, and S. S. Mohler, of Oregon City. In 1911 Mr. Mohler and Carl G. 
Johnson spent two months traveling over the mountain trails between Mt. 
Hood and Waldo lake. They stopped at many lakes where trout were very 
plentiful. But there were a great number of other lakes that contained no 
fish. In fact, they found that the largest and most attractive lakes were 
the ones without fish. Such lakes as Olalla, Waldo, Sparks, Big Elk, 

Page eleven 


and Big lakes, each one mentioned having an area of thousands of acres, 
were types of those visited. 

Upon their return Mr. Johnson took up the matter of stocking the lakes 
with the members of the Fish and Game Commission, who were at that 
time C. K. Cranston, J. F. Hughes, C. F. Stone, M. J. Kinney, and 
G. H. Kelly. They recognized the value of such an undertaking, and 
State Game Warden William L. Finley was instructed to plan and carry out 
the work. Mr. S. S. Mohler was employed to stock the lakes. Deputy Game 
Wardens George Russell and Guy Stryker assisted in the work. Special cans 
were made in which to pack the fish over the mountain trails on horseback. 
The species of fish chosen for planting were rainbow and eastern brook 
trout, and silver-side salmon. 

During the summer of 1912 a total number of 97,420 fingerling trout 
were carried on horseback over the mountain trails of the Cascades and 
distributed in eighty-three lakes. 

The State of Oregon owns thirteen fish stations and hatcheries. 
Previous to the time when the State Board of Fish and Game Commis- 
sioners took office, these stations were used solely for the propagation 
of salmon. Since then, however, the same hatcheries are used jointly for 
both game and commercial fishes. For the most part, the trout eggs are 
gathered from the various stations and sent to the central hatchery at 
Bonneville when in the eyed stage of development. Large numbers of 
eastern brook trout eggs have also been purchased from the Atlantic 
states and brought to Bonneville. At this place the eggs are hatched 
and raised to the fingerling stage, when they are ready to be liberated 
in the lakes and streams. 


The special fish distribution car " Rainbow " was purchased for the 
transportation of the game fish fry to the varioms distributing points. 
This car can handle from 150,000 to 180,000 fry each trip. The "Rainbow" 
is used largely for distributing in the larger streams and lakes within 
a few miles of the nearest railroad point. In sending the young fish 
from Bonneville to the point of distribution for the Cascade lakes from 
ten to twenty cans similar to large milk cans are used, and sent in an 
ordinary express car. Each can contains from five hundred to a thousand 
fingerling trout. The fish need constant attention both night and day. A 
deputy game warden is sent in charge of each shipment. The water must be 
stirred every few minutes in order that it may be aerated. Besides this, the 
temperature must be kept constant at about fifty-two degrees by the addition 
of ice. When the car with the fish reach the railroad destination it is met 
by the pack train which is to convey the fish over the mountain trails to 
the various lakes. 

Specially constructed cans were made for- mountain transportation. 
These cans are ■ seven inches wide, thirty-four inches long and thirty 
inches high. There is an opening in the top of each can four inches wide 

Pag-e twelve 


and eight inches long. The opening is covered with a screened cover 
which allows air to enter as the horses move along and a current of water 
to pass through when the cans are laid in the streams at night. There 
is another opening on the end of each can in which is inserted an iron 
screw plug about an inch in diameter. The stale water is taken out 
through this vent when fresh water is poured in at the top. The whole 
can is inserted in a tightly fitting canvas covering with holes and rings 

Interior of Fish Distribution Car, carrying* One Hundred and Eighty Ten- 
Gallon Cans, With Air Tubes Attached. 

for strapping it to the pack saddle. Each horse carries two of the cans, — 
one fastened on each side of the pack saddle. The total weight of each 
can together with the fish and usual amount of water is about eighty- 
five pounds. 


Seven horses were used in 1913 in stocking the lakes. Five of the 
horses carried the ten fish cans. When the fish were loaded on the horses, 
it was necessary to keep the pack train moving. If the horses should 
stand for a half hour or more, the fish would become sick and perhaps 
die. The movements of the horses cause the water to splash back and 
forth in the cans. This causes air to be dissolved in the water. When the 
water is not in motion the fish use up the larger part of the air and if 
more air or fresh water is not supplied they drown. For the sake of 
precaution, a new supply of fresh water is added every hour or so. A 
given quantity is taken from the lower vent and the same amount is 
poured in at the opening in the top. The numerous springs, brooks, and 
creeks along the mountain trails make it possible to change water as often 
as is desired. The temperature of the water in the cans is kept as near 
fifty-six degrees as is possible. Cooler water is more to be desired than 
warmer water. If the weather is cool the changes of water need not be so 

Page thirteen 


frequent. In fact, if the air is cold and the pack train is kept moving, 
many hours may elapse without a necessary change of water. 

On one occasion we set out from camp with two thousand fish for 
Three-Creek lake, near the head of Squaw creek. We did not find tho 
lake for about six hours, during which time we were unable to supply 
fresh water. However, the weather was cool and horses were constantly 
traveling. When at last we had located the lake and had planted the 
fish, we found that we had lost only two fish out of the two thousand. 

The distance traveled each day when fish were being carried was 
from fifteen to thirty miles. Several factors had to be considered in 
deciding how far to journey each day. In the first place, very little 
grain feed could be carried for the horses. Therefore it was necessary 
to camp at a place where grass was plentiful. We also made it a point 
to stop only where there was a running stream of water. When the fish 
cans were taken from the horses' backs, they were placed in the stream 
so as to allow a current to pass continually through the can. Unless we 
could find flowing water at the night stopping place one of the party 
would have to remain awake during the night in order to pour fresh water 
in the cans at short intervals. 

The small fish were fed before leaving the hatchery but not so while 
they were being transported to the lakes. In fact, it has been shown that 
fish keep in a more healthy conditition if they are not fed during transit. 
Fingerling trout can live for thirty days or more without being fed. 


Upon being released in the mountain lakes, the fish adapted themselves 
immediately to their new environment. They avoided dangerous objects with 
the speed of the wildest fish. Small insects such as mosquitoes served as prey 
almost the moment the trout were released. It is necessary to watch the 
liberated fish but a few minutes in order to convince oneself that the little 
trout are well able to keep out of the path of danger. 

A two-inch rainbow or eastern brook trout will grow to a length of 
from six to eight inches in one year. At the end of the second year the 
fish spawn. Each female trout lays from one to three thousand eggs. 
Ordinarily a small percentage of these eggs hatch and reach the mature 
state. However, the percentage of eggs laid in these lakes for the next 
few years will show an increase over the ordinary rate. There are not so 
many egg eating creatures in the lakes and there is an abundance of insect 
life and other food. 


The first shipment of 10,000 fish of the eastern brook variety was 
received at Detroit, the terminal of the Corvallis & Eastern Railroad, 
on July 8th, 1913. The fish were at once transferred from the fish cans 
used on the fish car to the cans used in packing the trout fry through the 
mountains. These cans were then placed bodily in the Santiam river 

Page fourteen 


near by, so as to allow a current of water to pass through the screen hi 
the top and out of another screen in the bottom. These fish were des- 
tined for Big lake. They were packed over the Minto trail to Inde- 
pendence Prairie, thence to Big Meadows, Duffy Prairie, past Three 
Fingered Jack mountain and on to the Big lake. Three days were actually 
spent in traveling the forty-two miles. Stormy weather was encountered 
on the summit of the mountains. This delayed the work for two days. On 
the 12th of July the pack train passed over about three miles of deep snow. 
That same night snow fell to a depth of two inches. We reached Big 
lake the next day and planted 8000 of the trout. The remaining 2000 were 
placed in Padgin and Buck Horn lakes just one mile southwest of Big lake. 

Big lake is on the Santiam wagon road just twenty-two miles west 
of Sisters. It is an irregular shaped lake of about 3200 acres, with low 
grass covered banks on three sides and a steep hill on the fourth. The 
water is shallow near the shore line but very deep a few hundred feet out. 
The lake has no over ground outlet, but flows over into Padgin and Buck 
Horn lakes during high water. The majestic snow-capped Mt. Washington 
stands like a sentinel overlooking the lake. Pine woods grow near the 
water's edge at various points around the lake. Formerly there were no 
fish in these three lakes. The stocking of them is of great importance 
to the people of central Oregon and also to the tourist and campers who 
pass back and forth over the Santiam road. The lake is also easily 
reached from Marion lake and the Three Fingered Jack district. It is 
fourteen miles from the Minto trail and eleven miles from Lake Margery 
and Santiam lake. Big lake is landlocked. For this reason it would be 
an excellent place in which to liberate young salmon. 

(Continued in September Issue.) 

A Typical Mountain Lake Stocked With Fing-erling* Trout. 

Page fifteen 



With Some Descriptions of the Country, Fish and Fishing— Part 9 



The Klamath is a long way off — six hundred miles by rail 
from Portland — yet many of our sportsmen go thither. To its 
famous waters sportsmen come from far and near — some from 
over the Atlantic — and all say the Klamath trout are the giants 
of their tribe. In three hours, at the head of Link river, I have 
seen in the air more big trout than altogether in my life time 
elsewhere. But they were blind to fly and spoon. They were 
leaping madly because infested with leeches which attack the 
trout when feeding in the tules on the minnows. 

For real fishing one goes up the Upper lake to Williamson, 
Sprague river or Spring creek. I have many tracings of trout as 
big as fair-sized salmon — six, eight, even ten pounders, and more, 
caught in Williamson river with the fly. 

Take the stoutest tackle you own when you go to the 

Other eastern Oregon waters of importance are the Wallowa 
and its tributary stream, the Minam, in the northeast corner of 
the state. A wilder region than that of the Minam I have not 
seen — not a dwelling on its course of fifty miles in my time. 

The Wallowa rises in the Wallowa lake and flows from it a 
big river. The lake itself is at the foot of grand mountains out 
of which many streams pour to unite in the river. Above the 
lake these wild torrents are almost inaccessible. There is good 
fishing in the lake and in the river, Joseph being conveniently near 
as a comfortable base. Bear creek, Middle fork and Hurricane 
creek are all splendid streams coming in from the south side and 
conviently reached from Enterprise or Wallowa, where accom- 
modations are first rate. The mountain scenery of the Wallowa 
is second to none on the coast and its rivers are purity complete. 

Fag*e sixteen 



Wallowa lake was until recently the spawning ground of a 
great number of Nerka or blue-back salmon. These fish are 
redder fleshed than any other salmon and have for this quality 
given the popular name of " Alaska Bed" to the principal pack 
of Alaskan waters, which is mainly of this species. 

The Redfish lakes at the head of the Salmon river, Idaho, are 
so named from the migration of the Nerka salmon thither from 
the ocean — a distance of nearly a thousand miles — to spawn. 
Payette and other lakes high in the mountains like Wallowa lake, 
are also noted for the visits of the "redfish." 

In Wallowa lake there are small landlocked salmon under 
a pound in weight at maturity, and these appear to be Nerka 
which have become changed in habit and make their home per- 
manently in the lake, ascending the tributary streams in great 
schools at spawning time. They refuse any kind of bait or fly 
at this time and are only caught by "snagging" them with hooks 
dropped among the schools. 

Several lakes and some rivers in Maine and Canada are in- 
habited by landlocked descendents of the Atlantic salmon, the 
famous "ouananiche" being one of the variety. 

From the great mountains comes Eagle creek, falling into 
Snake river. This is well worth a visit, but too remote for space 
here and almost entirely unknown to anglers, except the local 
residents. Pine creek, in the same great Wallowa range, falling 
eastward, and Imnaha, in the northeast corner of Oregon, a large 
river draining the northern slope of the Wallowa range, are 
streams which will remain remote and little known for years 
to come. 


The Grande Ronde, which is the largest river of northeastern 
Oregon, draining a valley nearly two hundred miles in length, 
and receiving Wallowa, Minam and Catherine rivers, is itself a 
splendid trout stream, too, and in its course, deep among the 
great mountains southeast of La Grande, yields magnificent fish- 
ing. There has been very good trout fishing in the Grande Ronde 

Pagre seventeen 


during the past summer, even down the valley as far as Island 

Catherine creek, a large tributary of Grande Ronde river, 
rises high in the Wallowa mountains east of Union, its pricipal 
branch (the northeastern) having its source at seven thousand 
feet above the sea. The sources of Minam and Eagle creek are in 
the same grand group of mountains. Following the course of the 
river from its junction with the Grande Ronde near Cove, it is 
fifty miles to the head of either North or South fork. A good 
road follows the South fork to Medical Springs — a stopping 
place twenty miles above Union — and onward to the southeast. 
The ascent is gentle up to this point and the country open, the 
pine forests covering the mountains beyond. This lower portion 
of Catherine creek is good fishing, trout of large size and white- 
fish abounding. A drive or a tramp of a few miles from Union 
up this river will bring one to excellent fishing. 

North Powder river, entering the South powder or Powder 
river near the town of North Powder, is a large and beautiful 
stream and affords fine sport. Its course is more impetuous than 
most of the eastern Oregon streams, receiving many tributaries 
from the great range of mountains lying west of the Powder 
valley. A road from North Powder follows the main stream 
closely, ascending rapidly to a great elevation. All the larger 
tributaries are good fishing except where mining refuse defiles 

Powder river for most of its course, and Burnt river, too, 
are useless for the fisherman because of placer mining. High up 
in the mountains at their sources, in the southeastern part of 
Baker county, the uncontaminated brooks are beautiful and there 
is good fishing for trout. The Sumpter Valley Railroad reaches 
many of these branches and there are pleasant mountain resorts 
where one finds good entertainment. 


John Day river, rising on the west side of the mountains 
about Sumpter — the height of the Blue mountains — in its upper 
valleys affords fine fishing in many places. East of Prairie City 
the river is a fine, clear stream, rising in high, forest-clad ranges, 

Page eighteen 


and the waters are free from the contamnation of irrigating and 
mining operations. The only large northern tributary — North 
Fork — receives several branches from the southern slope of the 
western spur of the Blue mountains, and, though remote from the 
railroad and distant from towns, these streams are well worth a 
visit from those prepared to camp. 

The upper waters of Malheur, rising in the south and east 
sides of the high mountains which separate Baker, Grant and 
Harney counties, should be good fishing, too, but are so remote 
that only the residents of that mountainous region have any 
knowledge of them. 

Going south from Canyon City by the stage road, one as- 
cends for many miles the valley of Canyon creek, a noble stream, 
and once above the mines in the lower course of this stream, it 
yields glorious fishing. One must camp here. Further on, many 
miles, one comes to Bear creek, in a high, frosty valley, and at 
Seneca, Bear creek joins Silvies river, a stream second to none 
in the great size and abundance of its trout. Within two miles 
of Burns trout of ten pounds weight have been taken. 

The waters of Silvies river are lost in Malheur lake, a very 
alkaline remainder of the ancient sea that once covered all Har- 
ney valley, and of which Harney lake is a near neighbor, the two 
united by a narrow channel. Into Harney lake from the west 
flows another large river, similar to the Silvies river, and, like 
it, a magnificent fishing stream. The fish of these two rivers 
appear to be steelhead trout, slightly modified by ages of separa- 
tion from the sea which once entered the valley from the Snake 
river estuary, though now the ridge of hills rises hundreds of feet 
between the waters of the Harney basin and those falling into 
Snake river. 

When the rivers of the basin are in flood, they temper the 
alkaline waters about their outlets for a considerable distance, and 
following the instinct of the family the trout go down into the 
waters of the lake for a salt water cruise, as our steelheads of 
the Columbia basin go into the ocean. 

Splendid specimens of the trout of the Silvies river may be 
seen in the collection at the Chamber of Commerce, Portland, and 
no better proof can be offered of the qualities of these far eastern 

Page nineteen 


waters of Oregon as producers of magnificent trout. To those 
gentlemen so fortunate as to have time and automobiles, the trip 
to Silvies or Silver river will prove interesting and memorable in 
the highest degree. 


On July 19th the Wing, Fin and Fleetfoot Club of La Grande, held 
their first annual fish day. All the members taking part went fishing in 
favorite streams and reported their catches to a committee. On July 21st 
a banquet was held to which all members of the club were invited. There 
were eighty-one present. In addition to an elaborate fish menu, and a fresh 
supply of big yarns, which only a fisherman can spin, the following prizes 
were awarded: 

The largest rainbow trout, measuring 17% inches, was caught by 
S. D. Crowe. The prize was a Meisselbach automatic reel, presented by 
Bert Hughes. 

The second largest rainbow trout, measuring 15% inches, was caught 
by Walter Zweifel. He received a Number 3 fish basket and strap, pre- 
sented by Golden Rule Company. 

The largest bull trout, or Dolly Varden, measuring 18 inches, was 
caught by W. E. Leffel. The prize was an automatic reel presented by 
Newlin Drug Company. 

The second largest bull trout, measuring 17^ inches, was caught by 
A. A. Wenzel. The prize was a fly book, presented by Lilly Hardware Co. 

The heaviest catch was 14^4 pounds by Will Kelly, the prize being 
$3.50 pole and one dozen Haywood trout flies, presented by W. H. Bohnen- 
kamp & Company. 

The second heaviest catch was made by Nate Zweifel, being 13 pounds, 
and the prize was fifty yards of enameled Kingfisher line, presented by 
C. D. Putnam of Hill's Drug Company. 


Deputy Game Warden E. C. Hills, of Eugene, has been making an effort 
to keep account of the various catches of fish that are made in the rivers 
and streams in that locality. According to the reports he has, there have 
been 124,823 fish taken from the local streams by anglers during April, 
May and June. 

During July fishermen have reported catching 8478 trout in the McKen- 
zie and the Willamette. 

C. M. Johnson, of Eugene, is reported to have caught a total of 500 
cutthroat trout in the old dam pond on Little Fall creek. He recently 
caught one measuring twenty-two inches. 

Page twenty 



Five men were shot last year in this state and 
two have already been killed this year, all mistaken 
for deer. 

When hunting deer, be sure you see the horns 
before you shoot. Hunters should never shoot at 
moving brush, leaves or grass with the expectation 
of killing game. It is dangerous. The moving ob- 
ject may be a man. 


You may be the next victim. If you are hunting 
in the mountains, take the precaution to wear a 
red hat or shirt or some other article of clothing 
that can easily be identified. 

MAR 24 191? 






Protected by Federal Law Until September 1, 1918. 



By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II ] 

5c a copy — 50c a year 

[Number 9 


IIIIHIHIMIIIIIinill lllilltlllilMlllirMllltlllllltlHMIMIIIItlllMIIKMItll M til N 1 1 M I f 1 1 M 1 1 Mllll 1 1 1 1 IIH1IM ttlMHIIIHI i H I IfT = 



The Oregon Sportsman, September, 1914 
Volume II - Number 9 

Copyright 1914, by William L. Finley 


Menace to Forests and Game — Editorial 1 

Passing of the Passenger Pigeon — Editorial 3 

New Federal Eegulations 4 

Closed Season on Quail and Pheasants 5 

Additional Bounty on Bobcats Discontinued 5 

Federal Inspector Appointed 5 

Feeding Fingerling Salmon — By Harry Beal Torrey 6 

Varieties of Quail in Oregon — One Illustration 9 

Tribute to Judge O. N. Denny— By B. W. Shufeldt 11 

State and Federal Laws 12 

Hunting Season Closed : 12 

Notes on Band-tailed Pigeons 13 

Stocking Cascade Mountain Lakes — Part II 

By Glenn Johnson — Two Illustrations 14 

South Elgin Game Befuge 20 

Chinese Pheasants in Umatilla County 20 

Closed Seasons 21 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II SEPTEMBER, 1914 Number 9 


July and August have been unusually dry months through- 
out Oregon. For over two months no rain has fallen. Forest 
fires in various parts of the state have menaced some of our 
finest timber. 

It is unfortunate that careless parties who are hunting and 
fishing and camping in the mountains are often responsible for 
letting camp fires get beyond control. Carelessness of this kind 
is like the carelessness of the hunter who shoots his friend for 
a deer. It is criminal and the punishment should be severe. All 
sportsmen who are in the woods should make it a point not only 
to be careful themselves, but to lend their efforts toward influ- 
encing others to be careful. 

While it is our opinion that there are many careless parties 
in the woods, yet we find that the average business man in the 
city who goes hunting and fishing is the man who loves outdoor 
life and is wide awake to protect our forests, our streams and 
our game. He has been educated to know the great harm of 
the pollution of our streams, the careless handling of arms and 
the fearful results of a camp fire that gets beyond control. 

The main cause of forest fires is, we venture to say, not from 
hunting and fishing parties; but in various localities we have a 
class of careless, shiftless people who, because they have home- 
steaded the land in the wilderness, believe they have inherent 
rights on their own property, as far as the game, the streams and 
the forests are concerned. It is difficult for such people to 
understand that, even though they desire to clear their own land, 
they cannot burn slashings that menace the property of neigh- 
bors, except according to law. It is difficult to make these 
people understand that the state owns the game; that is, that 
the game belongs to all the people and that each individual 
cannot kill game when and where he sees fit, but we must have 
laws so that the rights of all citizens may be equalized. 

Page one 


In the State of Oregon we have federal supervisors, district 
foresters and rangers for the protection of our forests. The 
State appropriated $75,000 at the last legislative session for the 
employment of wardens and to secure the better protection of 
forests during the years 1913 and 1914. During this same period, 
approximately $110,000 will be spent in the employment of game 
wardens in various parts of the state. This money comes from 
the Game Protection Fund which is paid in by hunters and 
anglers to secure better protection of game. 

Inasmuch as both forest protection and game protection is 
closely allied, and inasmuch as federal and state forestry and 
game wardens cover practically the same territory, the work of 
all should be in close co-operation. There is a continuous public 
demand that good service be secured for the money expended. 
In past years, it has been too easy for the warden of one depart- 
ment to consider that his duties ended in the enforcement of one 
set of laws. It is perhaps easier for a game warden to overlook 
strict enforcement of forestry laws at times. It is also much 
easier for a forestry warden who has to get the co-operation and 
help of homesteaders living back in the mountains to wink at 
the continuous violation of game laws. The claim has often 
been made that if forestry wardens arrested homesteaders for 
the violation of game laws, these parties would in turn set out 
fires and destroy the forests. All of which is very true. The 
real point of the matter is, that the lawless element which is the 
most difficult for the game warden to curb is the same element 
that causes most trouble for the forestry warden. The closer 
co-operation of both departments doubles the efficiency because 
both are combating a common enemy. The state wants efficiency. 

Oregon is a big state. There must necessarily be a large 
number of wardens for police service. The amount spent in 
police service is not too large. But it is easy to see that if we 
had a closer system of co-operation throughout Oregon where not 
only state officers of different departments but those employed 
by towns, cities and counties were working in unison against 
all law breakers, there would be a marked increase of efficient 
service against lawlessness. 

Pag"© two 



The last survivor of many millions of wild passenger pigeons 
that were formerly found through the middle west and in the 
eastern states died on September 1 at Cincinnati Zoological 
Gardens. This bird was a female and was hatched in captivity 
in Cincinnati twenty-two years ago. Every effort was made to 
keep the race from dying out by breeding in captivity, but this 
was unsuccessful. 

The death of this pigeon from some standpoints may seem 
a small matter, but from a scientific standpoint very likely 
means the extinction of a race of birds. A few skins, skeletons 
and stuffed specimens in some of the museums are now all that 
is left of the uncounted millions of wild pigeons that fairly 
blackened the skies during the migrating season. 

Two species of pigeons were formerly very abundant in the 
United States, the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) of 
the eastern states and the Band-tailed Pigeon (Columba fasciata) 
of the western United States. 

The passenger pigeon was formerly so abundant in the east- 
ern states that its extermination seemed impossible. Yet during 
the past few years, a large amount of money has been offered 
by ornithologists in the East to any one who could find a single 
pair of these birds. The rewards were not offered for the dead 
birds, but for information as to where any of these birds were 
living or especially breeding. The fact that no authentic infor- 
mation has been discovered as to the existence of a single pigeon 
in the wild state leads many people to believe they are totally 


The question as to what has become of the passenger pigeon 
has been widely discussed in outdoor magazines and among sports- 
men. It did not disappear on any given date, but as a species, 
the bird began rapidly disappearing in the sixties or from about 
1870. The most likely cause of the disappearance was that the 
bird nested in immense colonies and during the breeding season, 
they were systematically slaughtered by the wholesale for the 
market. In 1869 from the town of Hartford, Michigan, three 

Page three 


carloads of pigeons were shipped to market each day for forty 
days. This makes a total of approximately 11,880,000 birds. 
It is also recorded that another town in Michigan marketed 
15,840,000 birds in two years. Large numbers of the birds were 
netted in traps. It was an old custom to use live passenger 
pigeons as targets in shooting tournaments. It is recorded that 
in places through the middle west where the birds were breeding, 
men shook the squabs out of the trees in great numbers and used 
them to fatten hogs. 

Captain Charles E. Bendire in his Life Histories of North 
American Birds (1892), says: ". . . It looks now as if their 
total extermination might be accomplished within the present 
century. The only thing which retards their complete extinction 
is that it no longer pays to net these birds, they being too scarce 
for this now, at least in the more settled portions of the country, 
and also, perhaps, that from constant and unremitting persecu- 
tion on their breeding grounds they have changed their habits 
somewhat, the majority no longer breeding in colonies, but scat- 
tering over the country and breeding in isolated pairs." 

The passing of the passenger pigeon is a powerful lesson 
in wild bird protection. Its disappearance can only be attributed 
to carelessness on the part of the American people. 


In the December, 1913, issue of The Oregon Sportsman, the 
federal law for the protection of migratory birds was published 
showing the open and closed seasons. This law went into effect 
October 1, 1913. It provided for the protection of all insectiv- 
orous birds. A closed season was also provided until September 
1, 1918, for band-tailed pigeons, cranes, swans, curlews, smaller 
shore birds and wood ducks. Shooting was also prohibited be- 
tween sunset and sunrise. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the federal law for the pro- 
tection of migratory birds authorizing and directing the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture to adopt suitable regulations prescribing 
and fixing the closed seasons, many changes have been considered, 
but the only one affecting the shooting anywhere in the North- 

Pag-e four 


west is that of changing the open season for water fowl in Idaho. 
Last year the season was September 1 to December 16. The 
regulations which have been proposed will make the season uni- 
form with Oregon and Washington — October 1 to January 16. 
This change will likely be made to go into effect October 1, 1914. 


The State Board of Fish and Game Commissioners has suspended the 
open season on California (valley or little blue) quail in Multnomah, 
Clackamas, Washington, Yamhill, Polk, Marion, Benton, Linn and Lane 
counties from October 1 to October 31, 1914. Public notice to this effect 
has been given in the different counties, so that any person killing any of 
these birds is subject to fine or imprisonment. This action was taken 
because the Willamette valley has been stocked with these birds during 
the past two years and it is desired to give the birds every opportunity 
to increase. 

The open season has also been suspended from October 1 to October 31, 
1914, on Chinese pheasants in Clatsop and Tillamook counties. Very few 
of these birds were found in those localities, so a number have lately been 
introduced from the state game farm. 


At its regular monthly meeting on August 13, 1914, the State Board 
of Fish and Game Commissioners passed an order removing the additional 
bounty of $1.00 on wildcats, lynx or bobcats. This was paid under section 
50, chapter 232, Laws of 1913, and it was decided that no additional bounty 
be paid on these animals presented to county clerks on or after August 
14, 1914. 

Payment of the additional bounty of $15.00 on cougar and $20.00 on 
timber wolves will be continued as heretofore. 


Mr. E. S. Cattron, who has for the past few years been employed by 
the Fish and Game Commission, has recently received the appointment from 
the Department of Agriculture of Federal Inspector of the migratory bird 
law. Besides the enforcement of the federal law, Mr. Cattron will have 
supervision of the federal wild bird reservations in the Northwest. His 
district will be Oregon, Washington and Idaho. Congress recently appro- 
priated $50,000 for the enforcement of the federal law for the protection 
of migratory birds. Game protection work in the Northwest will be carried 
on in close co-operation with the state authorities. Greater efficiency will 
be secured by both working together. 

Page five 



Results of Experiments Showing Relative Value of Feeding Raw 

and Cooked Foods 



In Charge of Fish Experiment Station, Reed College 

The primary objects of the state fish hatcheries of Oregon 
are, first, to prevent the extinction of the food and game fishes 
that now run in our streams, and second, to increase the supply, 
especially of those species that possess the greatest food and 
game value. Owing to the constantly growing demand for 
Pacific salmon and the more and more serious interference of 
commercial fishing with the normal breeding habits of the fish, 
it is obvious that the prosperity of one of the great industries 
of Oregon can be assured only by the successful artificial propa- 
gation of the salmon on a large scale. 

Success in this direction involves the pressing problem of 
economy in administration. With every day that a young salmon 
is cared for as a semi-domestic animal at a hatchery, its cost to 
the public mounts. From the moment the egg is stripped from 
the mother and, upon fertilization, begins its development, it 
must be properly housed, properly protected against disease, 
properly fed. The last item first assumes practical importance 
after the food yolk has been absorbed and the young fish has 
begun to take food through the mouth. Then the various other 
necessary expenses of the hatchery are augmented by bills for 
appropriate food stuffs. In such a large institution as that at 
Bonneville, where many millions of eggs are hatched every year, 
these bills are from the beginning by no means small. And as 
the fishes wax in size, the amount of food they consume waxes 
with them. 

A practical problem thus presents itself that has been 
attacked from many directions, with varying degrees of success. 
It would seem to be a simple solution to turn the young fish into 
the streams to shift for themselves just as soon as they have 

Fagfe six 


established the habit of taking solid food. But facts are 
accumulating that advise against this practice, the fish at such 
an early age being too small and weak to withstand numerous 
accidents of the environment, notably the voracious appetites 
of fishes of larger size. The expedient has also been tried of 
cutting the food supply to a quantity sufficient to maintain 
active life, but insufficient for rapid and perfect development. 
This has failed, also ; for it is obviously bad policy to rear fishes 
by hand a day longer than is necessary to insure their welfare 
in the streams that bear them to the ocean where they mature. 
The more rapidly they grow, the shorter the period of expensive 
probation at the hatchery. 

Several agencies contribute toward this latter result. A 
great deal depends on the housing conditions. These may be 
said to include the troughs, character of ponds, depth, flow and 
temperature of the water, crowding of the fish, and so on. With 
ideal conditions of this sort, however, there still remains the 
item of food. Upon that the present paper would focus attention. 
For the great desirability of increasing the efficiency and at 
the same time decreasing the cost of fish food at the hatcheries 
has instigated experiments whose results may be briefly reported. 

One of the foods that has been found to be adapted to the 
needs of very young fish is beef liver. The custom has been to 
feed it raw. Assuming the value of liver as a fish food, are the 
best. results obtained by feeding it raw? 

The answer which our experiments give to this inquiry 
appears best with the aid of a tabular view of the results. The 
method of investigation consisted in dividing a given lot of 
Chinook salmon that were just beginning to take solid food 
through the mouth, into two numerically equal groups. These 
were placed side by side in separate troughs, the flow of water, 
temperature and all other conditions being as nearly as possible 
the same for each — with the one exception of food. One group 
was fed on raw liver, the other on an equal daily weight of 
cooked liver. The weight of twenty fishes was taken at the 
beginning and at the end of the experiment, the average weight 
per fish being obtained in each case and the average gain per 

Page seven 


cent, in weight during the elapsed time. Four such pairs of 
groups are tabulated. 

Amt. and condition 

beef liver fed daily No. fish 

1. 10 grams raw 1800 

2. 10 grams cooked.. .1800 

3. 20 grams raw 2000 

4. 20 grams cooked.. .2000 

Date of 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 2 

Mar. 1 

Apr. 2 

Av. wt. of 
twenty inds. 
.465 grams 
.525 " 
.465 " 
.590 " 

Gain in 



5. 30 grams raw. 


6. 30 grams cooked.. .2000 

7. 40 grams raw 345 



.500 grams 



.625 " 




.500 " 



.875 " 
.535 grams 





.555 " 




.535 " 



.795 " 


8. 40 grams cooked. . . 345 






Apr. 5 

Apr. 19 

May 19 



May 19 

It will be seen that in each case, the fishes fed on cooked 
liver gained weight faster than the others. Excluding from 
consideration Nos. 5 and 6, on account of the abnormally small 
gain of the fishes fed on raw liver, the fishes fed on cooked liver 
gained in weight from 1.48 (Nos. 7 and 8) times to twice (Nos. 
1 and 2), and three times (Nos. 3 and 4), as much as the others 
in the same time. Including Nos. 5 and 6, the results would be 
still more strikingly in favor of cooked liver as a food. 

To find the efficiency of the food per unit of cost, it is 
necessary to take into account certain losses that take place in 
the process of grinding, and cooking, and in the elimination of 
tough, connective tissue unsuitable for food. In ten weighings, 
the raw liver lost, in preparation, an average of 33 per cent, of 
its original weight. Similarly, the cooked liver lost 43 per cent. 

Pagfe eight 


of its original weight. This means that for every one hundred 
grams of raw liver available for food, but eighty-five grams are 
available after cooking, showing a loss in weight of 15 per cent, 
in the cooking. 

Put in another way, one hundred grams of cooked liver 
costs ll'Yz per cent, more than an equal weight of raw liver. 
In itself a serious difference, this added cost loses its importance 
when the far greater food value of cooked liver is recalled. It 
is worth while to add 17% per cent, to the cost to obtain an 
increase in food value of from 48 to 200 per cent. Further 
expansion of the arithmetic of the problem is not needed to 
emphasize the fact that the experiments, so far as they go, 
indicate that when liver is fed to young salmon that have just 
absorbed their yolk sacs, it should, for reasons of economy, be 
fed cooked. 


Differences in the Plumage of the Three Species Mentioned in 

the Game Laws. 

The following description will enable sportsmen to distin- 
guish between the three species of quail mentioned in the Oregon 
statutes so as to avoid violating the game laws: 

The mountain or plumed quail is the largest and most beau- 
tifully colored quail in the state. It has slender black crest 
feathers; the upper parts of the body are olive-brown, while the 
throat and flanks are deep chestnut in color; the flanks also 
have black and white bands. The breast is bluish-slate. This 
is the common native quail through the greater part of Oregon, 
especially in the entire mountainous or wooded districts from 
the Cascades to the Pacific coast. 

The California, valley or little blue quail is a little smaller 
than the mountain quail. It has black crest feathers that differ 
radically from those of the mountain quail; they are narrow at 
the base and wider at the top, curling toward the front, while 
the crest of the mountain quail curves backward except when 
the bird is running or excited, when it stands straight up. The 

Page nine 


back or upper parts of the California quail are smoky-brown; 
the throat is black, bordered with a white stripe ; the breast is 
bluish-gray; the belly has a chestnut patch around which the 
feathers with light centers and dark borders resemble the scales 
of a fish. This bird is abundant all through southern Oregon 
and ranges through eastern Oregon up to the Columbia river. 
It is not a resident of the Willamette valley, but during the past 
two years about fifteen hundred of these birds have been 
trapped in southern Oregon and liberated in the Willamette 
valley and other parts of the state where they were not found 

The bobwhite quail was formerly introduced into Oregon 
from the eastern United States. It is now abundant in Umatilla 
and northern Malheur counties and especially in certain sections 
of the Willamette valley. The bobwhite may be distinguished 
by its white throat, which is bordered by black; there is a white 
line running through the eye; the upper parts are reddish-brown 
and black ; the under parts are also brown barred with black. 

— Photograph by R. W. Shufeldt. 
California Quail, Often Called Valley or Little Blue Quail. 

Page ten 



3356 Eighteenth St., Washington, D. C, June 11th, 1914. 

Dear Mr. Pinley: 

I have been much interested in copies of recent issues of The Oregon 
Sportsman, and the excellent picture, reproduced from a photograph from life 
of a " Chinese Pheasant Mother" on the outside cover page of the May, 
1914, number, vividly brought to mind my first meeting with Judge Denny 
in Washington, a great many years ago. My father, then an admiral in the 
navy, had invited him to dine with him, and it was during the course of 
this dinner that I heard the judge give a full account of his having secured 
a number of pairs of Chinese pheasants in China, when he was on his 
way back from Corea, and that he had had them released in Oregon to breed 
under very favorable conditions. It was the common pheasant of the 
country, and he hoped to establish it as a game bird in Oregon. He had 
met all the expenses, I believe, and was evidently not only a most enthusiastic 
Oregonian, but a firm believer in augmenting the list of game birds of the 
country in any legitimate way he could. 

I have the most pleasant recollections of Judge Denny, and I greatly 
admired the vigor and superb qualities of the man and the pride he took in 
developing the resources of the Pacific Coast. 

I have often wondered whether the quail of Europe could not be suc- 
cessfully introduced in Oregon. It is a fine little game bird, multiplies rap- 
idly, and does not constitute a nenace to the agriculturalist in any way. 

Efforts have been made several times to introduce it in the East, but 
each time the undertaking has failed owing to the strong migratory instincts 
of the species. They gradually diminish in numbers, finally disappearing 
altogether, notwithstanding the fact that they are very hardy little birds 
and the country well adapted to their propagation. 

Several years ago, I kept some of these birds alive, and on several 
occasions I succeeded in making good photographs of them. As a matter 
of fact, I have been successful in photographing from life all the different 
species of quails which occur throughout the Pacific Coast region, and as 
an example of these, I am sending you a photograph I have made of the 
California quail — a bird I have had alive in my keeping upon several 

This quail is frequently kept as a pet in the East; it is a most affection- 
ate and interesting one, and it has always been a wonder to me that the 
various species of Californian quails have not been introduced as game 
birds into a number of favorable districts in the Middle and Eastern dis- 
tricts of the Country. 

With best wishes, 

Sincerely yours, 


Page eleven 



Sportsmen should remember that some important changes have been 
made in the game seasons by the federal laws which are now in effect 
and which take precedence over the state laws. 

It is now lawful to shoot ducks and geese in any part of Oregon from 
October 1 to January 15. The bag limit is 30 in any seven consecutive 

It is lawful to shoot deer with horns in any part of Oregon from 
August 1 to October 31. The limit is three in a season. 

It is lawful to shoot black-breasted and golden plover, Wilson or jack 
snipe, and the greater and lesser yellow-legs from October 1 to December 15. 
The limit is 30 in any seven consecutive days. 

It is lawful to shoot doves in any part of Oregon from September 1 
to October 31. The bag limit is 10 in one day or 20 in any seven con- 
secutive days. 

It is lawful to shoot male Chinese pheasants, blue or sooty grouse, 
ruffed grouse or native pheasants in western Oregon from October 1 
to October 31, except it is unlawful to shoot Chinese pheasants in Jackson, 
Josephine, Coos, Curry, Tillamook and Clatsop counties. The bag limit 
is five of any or all such birds in one day or 10 in any seven consecutive 

It is lawful to shoot mountain or plumed quail in any part of Oregon 
from October 1 to October 31. The bag limit is 10 birds in any seven 
consecutive days. 

It is lawful to shoot blue or sooty grouse, ruffed grouse or native 
pheasants in eastern Oregon from September 1 to October 31. The bag 
limit is five of any or all such birds in one day or 10 in any seven con- 
secutive days. 

It is lawful to shoot California or valley quail in eastern and southern 
Oregon, except in those sections where they have been recently introduced, 
from October 1 to October 31. The bag limit is 10 in any seven con- 
secutive days. 

It is unlawful to shoot female Chinese pheasants or bobwhite quail 
in any part of Oregon at any time. 


On account of numerous forest fires and the unusually dry season, 
Governor West issued a proclamation closing the hunting season during 
the latter part of August until September 1, 1914. It has been contended 
by timber owners and forestry wardens that a 'large number of fires in 
the woods has been due to careless hunters and that the deer season should 
open September 1 rather than August 1, as at the present time. 

Page twelve 


This is the first time the hunting season has been closed by proclama- 
tion of the Governor. The provision under which this was issued is in 
chapter 278, section 7 of the Session Laws of 1911 and is as follows: 

"Whenever, or wherever, during an open season for the hunting of 
any kind of game in this State, it shall appear to the Governor upon the 
showing of the State Forester that by reason of extreme drought the use 
of firearms or fire by hunters is liable to cause forest fires, he may, by 
proclamation, suspend the open season and make it a closed season for the 
shooting of wild birds and animals of any kind for such time as he may 
designate, and during the time so designated all provisions of law relating 
to closed seasons for game shall be in force." 


The following items concerning the abundance of trapping of band- 
tailed pigeons were sent in by Mr. O. G. Dalaba, of Corvallis, Oregon: 

"I did quite a bit of trapping years ago in Wisconsin and later in 
Oregon. The wild pigeon of the Pacific Coast is quite different from the 
passenger pigeon of the East. They do not travel in large numbers as the 
eastern birds in the Mississippi valley in the seventies. People now 
would not believe it possible to see them in such large numbers. The band- 
tailed pigeon has not as wild a nature as the eastern bird. I believe our 
wild pigeon could become quite domesticated with a little care. 

"I used to catch them by the hundreds in the Coast hills in 1893, but 
they were more plentiful in the Willamette valley or in King's valley at 
the time. I caught or saved twenty-five dozen at one spring of the net at 
Eddyville and then lost nearly half of them. We had so many that they 
raised the net and hundreds got away. 

"I used to ship them to Portland and San Francisco via steamers from 
Yaquina City. Have shipped as many as eighty dozen at a time, usually 
losing from three to five dozen on a shipment to San Francisco, but to 
Portland by express only a few. Birds are not nearly so abundant at the 
present time, but are more plentiful than one not acquainted with their 
habits would think. 

"The band-tailed pigeons do not nest in large numbers, usually only in 
pairs in alder and fir trees along the river and over the water. The birds 
migrate with the seasons, the same as the eastern birds; they make their 
appearance here and on the Coast the last of April and first of May and 
commence nesting, remaining until late in November. They feed on berries 
of all kinds: salmon berries first and late in the fall on chittem and salal 
berries and huckleberries. The pigeons are usually to be found in large 
numbers in the fall around the salt marshes or tide lands and at mineral 
springs in the Cascade mountains. ' ' 

Pagre thirteen 



Report of Fingerlings Liberated With Description of Some of the 

Lakes and Country 


Part II 

The second shipment, consisting of 10,000 rainbow trout, was received 
at Redmond July 18. The destination for these fish was the Black Crater 
and Olalla mountain district near the McKenzie road on the summit of 
the Cascades. The route chosen for the trip was from Redmond to Sisters, 
thence on the McKenzie road between Black Crater and Belknap Crater. 
On acoount of the hot weather, dusty roads, and few watering places, we 
traveled from Redmond to Sisters, a distance of twenty-two miles, by 
moonlight. In this way, by packing until sunrise the next morning, we 
were able to get the fish to Squaw creek in fine shape. 

There are very few running streams on the road between Sisters and 
Hand lake. However, there were numerous snow drifts along the road 
among the lava beds, which we used to cool the water in the fish cans. 
We reached Hand lake July 21, where we camped while planting the lakes 
in that vicinity. One thousand trout were turned loose in Pole creek, 
which empties into Hand lake. The area of this lake is about fifty acres. 
Great numbers of small creatures thrive in this body of water, serving as 
good feed for fish. A small red bug about one thirty-second of an inch 
in length was especially attractive to the little fish when turned loose. 

Lost lake, now known as Linnton lake, was stocked with 4000 fish. 
This body of water lies about two miles off the road in the midst of a 
rough lava formation. There is no trail between the road and lake. 
Therefore, it was necessary to cut our way as best we could through the 
exceedingly rough jungle of underbrush and over the lava beds. A forest 
ranger, who accompanied us on this trip, declared he would not go back 
to the lake again until a trail had been built, so rough was the traveling. 
Yet, the two best horses with heavy loads succeeded in making the journey. 
The fact that it is so difficult to reach the lake, insures the complete 
stocking before anglers visit this place. 

The three Scott lakes were stocked with 2000 rainbow trout. These 
all lie close together and during very high water are connected with each 
other. Large meadows completely surround these lakes. Another thousand 
fish were planted in Shough lake, which is located about two miles from 
Scott lakes and four miles from Olalla mountain.' 

The remaining 2000 trout were saved to stock Three Creek lake, 
located at the head of Squaw creek and near Broken Top mountain. 

Fag*e fourteen 


This lake has an area of fifty acres and lies in a crater formation. It 
is easily reached by trail from Sisters. 


The next shipment of 10,000 rainbow- trout was Sparks lake, which 
is a deep blue body of water about five miles long and one mile wide. 
It is located twenty-seven miles southwest of Bend and is seventy-one 
miles from Oakridge via government trail. The South Sister lies a little 
to the west of north, and Batchelor mountain is situated just to the east 
and begins to rise near the water's edge. Broken Top mountain is four 
miles north. Tumalo mountain, though close by, is hidden from view by 
a lower tree-covered packsaddle-shaped butte. Devil's hill, a rugged, broken 
mass of rock, a thousand feet high, rises from the northwest side. A jack 
pine-covered hill extends along the entire south side. On the north side 
of the lake is a five hundred-acre luxuriantly grass-covered meadow of 
wild clover, rye, and red top grass. No trees grow on the meadow, but 
pine forests are all around it. On the upper or west end are many white 
firs and hemlocks, whose branches serve as good "feathers" for beds. 

— Photograph by Johnson. 
A Load of Ten Thousand Trout Fry on the Trail for Lakes in the Higher 


Many streams enter the lake, yet there is no over-ground outlet. The 
largest one is Sparks creek. It rises at Three Sisters lakes and flows 
rapidly down the valley until it strikes the big meadow on the north side 
of the lake. Here it meanders in great winding loops somewhat as does 
the Deschutes river at Crane Prairie. Dozens of large springs bubble up 
near the shore line and flow into the lake as brooks. The temperature of 
the spring water varies from 36 degrees to 42 degrees Fahrenheit. 

A mineral spring similar to Wilhoit and Cascadia is located near the 
lake. Its water flows into Soda creek, which in turn empties into Sparks 

Pag-e fifteen 


lake. Another peculiar feature of this vicinity is the pumice stone forma- 
tions round about. Little pebbles and huge boulders of this stone are 
strewn around. One can throw these rocks into the water and they will 
float like corks. 


Thousands of ducks and other waterfowl nest throughout the summer 
on the small islands in the lake. For this reason the lake and vicinity 
should be made a game preserve. Sparks lake is an ideal place for trout. 
Its deep water and many inlets insure protection during the cold winter. 
The unbroken grass-covered shore line provides ample feed for great num- 
bers of fish. The large inlets will provide excellent fly casting at times 
when the fish may not be rising in the lake. Sparks lake, as all the other 
lakes that have been stocked the last two seasons, has had no fish 

Two thousand eastern brook trout were planted in Devil's lake, which 
is about a mile from Sparks. Devil's lake, like Sparks, has no outlet, 
though it has two creek inlets. Mr. Mohler and the writer fortunately 
discovered where the surplus water made its exit. At one end of the lake 
many floating leaves and chips of wood marked a well defined eddy. On 
closer examination we were able to distinguish a gurgling sound of an 
underground stream as it sank in the lava rocks. An Indian legend to 
the effect that the devil lies in wait at Devil's lake for unwary travelers 
causes the Indians to journey several miles out of their way in order to 
get past the danger. 

Nine miles southwest of Devil's lake, by way of the High or Summit 
trail, lie the five Horse lakes. The outlets of these lakes empty into the 
McKenzie river. These bodies of water are on the summit of the moun- 
tains, yet the fishing in them is most excellent. The species inhabiting 
this vicinity is the cutthroat trout. Of all the fish we caught here, there 
were none except cutthroats. Several large, shallow lakes lie to the east 
of Horse lakes. Only one of these is suitable for fish and in that one 
we placed 1000 rainbows. The Horse lake district is an excellent place 
in which to hunt and fish. Certain instructors from the Oregon Agricul- 
tural College spend their vacations there each Summer. 

Another large lake stocked in 1913 was Big Elk lake, located eight 
miles south of Sparks lake. Big Elk is one of the grandest lakes in the 
entire Cascades. It is three miles long and over a mile wide. Gravel 
beaches extend about one-half the way around the lake. The rest of the 
shore line is covered with grassy meadows. The main ridge of the moun- 
tains lies to the north and is in plain view from the water's edge. The 
snow-capped peaks of the South Sister and Batchelor mountain rise high 
above the lake on the north. Six miles south of Big Elk are located the 
Big and Little Lava lakes, and the head of the Deschutes river. These 
two latter lakes now swarm with redsides or rainbow trout. But Big Elk 
is destined to surpass these as an ideal place to camp and fish. Similar 
to Sparks lake, ice cold springs of water stream forth at various points 

Page sixteen 


around the lake. This lake was stocked with 9000 rainbow trout. Last 
year 1250 eastern brook trout were planted there. With the exception of 
these, there are no fish in the lake. 


Ten thousand rainbow trout for Waldo lake were received at Oak- 
ridge August 19. Last year 2100 fish were planted in Waldo. Reports 
from various sources show that the trout liberated there last season are 
doing well. Men working on the Waldo Lake Irrigation and Power Com- 
pany project declare they have seen schools numbering thousands of fish 
from six to nine inches long, swimming near the shore line. The fact that 
only 2100 fish were in the lake previous to this year shows that practically 

— Photograph by Johnson. 
Packing" Trout Pry, Each Can Weighs Ahout Eighty-five Pounds. The Longest 
Pack was Eight Days with a Loss of Less than Fifty Pry. 

all the trout planted there have survived the winter and thrived, — even 
though the reports may have been exaggerated. 

Those who have seen Waldo lake are of the opinion that it is one 
of the largest and most attractive lakes in the Cascade mountains. The 
extreme length is seven and one-eighth miles and it is four and one-half 
miles broad in the widest place. It has a rocky beach most of the way 
around, but there are many little bays where reeds and grass grow up to 
the water's edge. The low land on the west side of the lake is broken by 
a great number of small ponds covered with pond lilies and surrounded 
with meadows of elk and forage grasses. Waldo lake is just west of the 
summit; it marks the division point between the eastern Oregon and 

Pag"e seventeen 


western Oregon flora. To the north and east lie great forests of jack 
and yellow pine and it is relatively an open country when compared with 
the dense forests and denser underbrush found west of the lake. Sur- 
rounding Waldo is a forest of hemlock trees. One fork of the Willamette 
rises at Waldo lake and within a few miles drops over 1500 feet. The 
high falls in the creek have kept fish from stocking Waldo naturally from 
the Willamette. 

One-half mile northwest of Waldo is a little lake of about twenty-five 
acres named Seven-Acres lake. We stocked this with 250 rainbow trout. 
Another small lake of about the same size lies near Meadows ranger 
station, and is called Meadows lake on account of its proximity to the 
station. Another branch of the Willamette heads there. In this lake and 
a smaller one near by, were planted 250 rainbows each. 

Another shipment of rainbow trout was received at Oakridge, 
August 23. These fish were carried along the government trail up the 
North Pork of the Willamette to its source. On the top of the canyon 
and at the head of the river are ten fine lakes, all of which we stocked. 

Otter lake, which is three miles northwest of Irish mountain and five 
south of Box Canyon, received 2000 rainbow trout. This lake has an area 
of about forty acres. It is saucer-shaped and is surrounded by a jack pine 
forest. Its outlet soon drops over into the Willamette canyon, falling 
over a thousand feet. 

Three miles west of Irish mountain and one mile east of Otter lake 
is another body of water called Elgin lake, in which we planted 2000 trout. 
Elgin lake has an area of eighty acres and is of a lava or crater formation. 
It is kidney-shaped, its two parts of about equal areas being connected by 
a narrow strait. A loose rock-strewn rim about one hundred feet in height 
encircles the lake. Small hemlock, white fir, and jack pine trees grow on 
the sides of the rim. 

The outlet of Elgin lake flows into Soapy lake which is about one- 
fourth mile below. Soapy lake takes its name from its slate-colored or 
soapy appearance. This is due to the color of the rock and sediment on 
the bottom. It is located only a few hundred feet from the edge of the 
Willamette canyon. Its outlet drops for over a thousand feet in a series 
of beautiful waterfalls. These falls can be seen for many miles along the 
ranger's trail down the river. In this place 500 fish were liberated. 

Two other lakes in the same vicinity, known as Pond Lily lake and 
Loon lake, were also stocked. We put 800 in the former and 500 in the 
latter. These lie west of Irish mountain and on the edge of a burned-off 
area called Taylor's Burn. Two miles north of this place is a small lake 
called Boulder lake, which we stocked with 200 fish. 


In the same district one and one-half miles southwest of Taylor's 
butte, is an eighty-acre lake named Torrey lake. This is one of the best 
bodies of water on the upper Willamette. It is the source of the main 
fork of the North Willamette. In this 1000 rainbow trout were planted, but 

Pag-e eighteen 


more could well have been turned loose there. The limited number of 
fish on hand at the time, however, necessitated leaving this work for a 
future date. The present inaccessible position of the lake insures the 
complete stocking of the place, so that a thousand fish may answer the 
purpose just as well. 

Eigdon lake, located one mile south of Taylor's butte, is another lake 
which was stocked with 1000 fish. It is similar in size and other respects 
to Torrey lake. 

The remainder of the shipment of fish was reserved for the five 
unstocked lakes in the Big Cultus district. Four of these lakes are located 
at the base of Irish mountain, and near Cultus lake and the mountain by 
the same name. The largest of these are Eowland and George lakes. They 
are all in craters of extinct volcanoes or blow-outs. 

Eowland lake is of an elliptical shape and has an area of forty acres 
or more. A rough formation of huge boulders and steep pinnacles are the 
remnants of ancient volcanic action. Many deer roam among the high 
meadows near the lake. In this lake 500 rainbow trout were planted. The 
fish were carried in buckets from Big Cultus lake, which is about four 
miles from Eowland. 

Another deep crater lake similar to Eowland lake and about a mile 
away received a like number of trout of the same variety. A feature of 
Lake George is its rocky, tree-covered island. The fish put there were 
also carried in buckets from our camp at Big Cultus lake. The two other 
lakes in the same locality that were stocked are much smaller. 

The fifth lake in the Cultus district to be stocked is known as Connolly 
lake. It is a land-locked lake of about fifty acres. A rocky rim extends 
nearly around the shore. It is five miles southeast of Pack Saddle moun- 
tain, and the same distance from Big Cultus lake. 


Eight days and eight hours elapsed between the time we received the 
fish at Oakridge and the time we released the last part of the shipment 
in Connolly lake. During all this time we lost less than fifty of the finger- 
ling trout. The distance traveled was over fifty-five miles, not including 
the side trips in reaching the outlying lakes. 

The number of lakes stocked in 1912 was eighty-three, and the number 
this year was thirty-three. The places planted this year were harder to 
reach, hence the smaller number. It is estimated that there are in the 
Cascade mountains in Oregon upwards of three hundred lakes suitable for 
trout culture. This does not include shallow lakes, ponds, or otherwise 
undesirable lakes. One hundred and sixteen were stocked in 1912-1913. 
Many others already had fish in them, and others which are south of Waldo 
lake have been stocked during the past summer. 

Certain people have been skeptical about the stocking of mountain 
lakes. The lakes planted in 1912 and revisited in 1913 prove that the 
work has been a marked success. Reports have come in, to the effect 
that the fish in Olalla lake are a foot long. Lake Margery and Santiam 

Page nineteen 


lake, near Three Fingered Jack mountain, have fish to the length of eight 
inches. Even Irish and Taylor lakes, which are on the very summit of 
the mountains, have produced fish which are seven and eight inches long. 
As we passed by these lakes we saw large schools in the shallow water 
next to the shore jumping at flies and in a thrifty condition. 

The total cost of stocking these lakes has been about $2000 each season, 
or $4000 for the two years. The money is appropriated from the funds 
received for the angling licenses. People who have looked at the trout 
fry in the fish cans, and those who have witnessed the release of the fish 
in the lakes, have in many cases expressed themselves 'in words similar 
to the following: "I feel like buying another fishing license to help carry 
on such a work as this." 

It will require several years for the present supply of fish in the lakes 
to increase in numbers sufficient to insure good sport. During the past 
year rainbow trout eggs were collected at Odell and Davis lakes and 
hatched there instead of at Bonneville. The trout fry have been distributed 
from these points to the lakes further south. This has lessened the expense 
and at the same time made the work more rapid. 


Mr. Arthur Hallgarth reports that the South Elgin game refuge of 
Union county is one of the best refuges for game birds in the state. It 
is five miles long and about thirteen miles in circumference. It is sur- 
rounded by a county road, but has no cross-road running through it. It is well 
stocked with Chinese pheasants and also ruffed grouse or native pheasants. 
Blue grouse are quite abundant, and it also contains about two hundred 
prairie chickens. This refuge contains California or little blue quail and some 
bobwhite quail. Twenty-four Hungarian partridges were liberated on this 
refuge last spring and they are doing well. Several species of ducks are 
nesting along the river and Wilson or jacksnipe are plentiful. 

William Hill, one of the farmers in the reserve, reported that he has a 
flock of pheasants on his farm with two pure white ones among them. When 
he first saw them, he thought they were leghorn chickens, but they flew 
away with the rest of the flock and were good fliers. 


Dr. J. B. Plamondon, of Athena, reports that the Chinese pheasants 
which were liberated in his locality during the fall of 1913 are doing well. 
Several coveys of young birds have been seen lately. He reports about 
fifty young birds on the Barrett ranch, which is part of the Pine creek 
refuge. A number of nests of eggs were found after the stubble had been 
burned over. 

"The method of farming in this section, which is almost entirely sum- 
mer fallowing and burning the stubble in the spring, has nearly destroyed 
the prairie chicken and I fear will greatly retard the increase of the Chin- 
ese pheasant." 

Page twenty 


Sportsmen must distinguish between game birds 
that are protected and illegal to shoot and those for 
which there is an open season. 

The Oregon law protects the female Chinese, 
Ring-necked or Denny pheasant. 

Sportsmen must distinguish between the three 
varieties of quail that inhabit Oregon (see descrip- 
tion on page nine). The open season on moun- 
tain or plumed and California cr valley quail is from 
October 1 to October 31, inclusive. There is no open 
season on bobwhite quail. There is also no open 
season on California or valley quail any place in 
the Willamette valley because these birds have re- 
cently been introduced and they are being protected 
for stocking purposes. 

There is no open season in eastern Oregon for 
Chinese pheasants. There is also no open season in 
the following counties west of the Cascades for 
Chinese pheasants : Jackson, Josephine, Coos, Curry, 
Clatsop and Tillamook. 

Wood ducks and wild pigeons are protected for 
five years under the Federal laws. 


MAR 24 1917 

:ii,l:i ll I 


OCTOBER, 1914 

=< I 

Male Baldpate or Widgeon 



By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II 

5c a copy — 50c a year 

Number 10 



V^ | 


The Oregon Sportsman, October, 1914 
Volume II - Number 10 

Copyright 1914, by William L. Finley 

Chinese Pheasants, Frontispiece in Color 

By R, Bruce Horsf all 2 

Is the Dove a Game Bird? — Editorial 3 

The Cat Problem— By Dr. Witmer Stone 4 

Black-Spotted or Cutthroat Trout— Clark Trout 

By John Gill 5 

Additional Sportsmen's Organizations in Oregon 12 

Burrowing Owl's Storehouse 13 

Time Table for the Hunting Season 14 

Winter Game Conditions in the Steens Mountains 

By F. H. Fawcett 15 

Do Fish Suffer Pain When Hooked?— By C. K. Cranston. . 17 

Reports on Game Birds Liberated 18 

Hungarian Partridges in Coos County 19 

Elk in Lincoln County 19 

Wild Rice in Umatilla County 19 

Bobcat Treed by Coyotes 20 

Elk in Lane and Curry Counties 20 

Deer in Umatilla County 20 

Open Season for Chinese Pheasants 20 

What Are You Doing to Help? 21 

Male and Female Chinese or Denny Pheasant 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II OCTOBER, 1914 Number 10 


As the interest increases in wild bird protection more atten- 
tion has been given to the study of these creatures from an eco- 
nomic standpoint. In some localities in Oregon farmers are 
demanding the rigid protection of game birds like the bobwhite 
and other insect and weed-seed eating birds as an aid to larger 
and better crops. 

There is a growing sentiment throughout the United States 
for the removal of the dove from the list of game birds. Two 
reasons are advanced for this action, one is from a sentimental 
standpoint, the other from an economic point of view. 

In an editorial treating of the Value of Birds on the Farm the 
Editor of Forest and Stream says : 

"One of the game birds, the mourning dove, is especially 
worthy of mention as a useful seed-eating bird. While the dove 
sometimes takes grain, most of this seems to be waste grain taken 
after harvesting is over. These birds are most abundant, how- 
ever, in waste lands where weeds abound, turkey mullein forming 
one of their favorite foods, while tumble weed and mustard are 
also eaten extensively. 

"The immense numbers of weed seeds destroyed by these 
birds is shown in the fact that the stomach of one dove contained 
9200 seeds of different weeds, while the stomachs of two other 
doves contained 6400 and 7500 respectively. If three doves at 
one meal can destroy 23,100 weed seeds and thus prevent the 
spread of that many noxious weeds, how much good could be 
accomplished by the doves on one farm in one county or through- 
out the state. 

"In the United States alone the annual loss from weeds has 
been estimated at $400,000,000. In the face of these startling 
figures we can well realize the importance of protecting the 
useful seed-eating birds, one of nature's best means of checking 
just such losses." 

Page three 




Curator Academy of Natural Sciences 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Splendid results have been attained during the past year 
toward the better protection of wild birds and animals. It seems 
high time that we take up a phase of the subject that comes near 
home to every household in the country. This is the cat question. 
There is, I think, no doubt that for years past the greatest 
destructive agency to our smaller song and insectivorous birds 
has been the cat. 

In an editorial in "Forest and Stream" for November 15, 
1913, that is well worth reading, the subject is taken up from 
the standpoint of the sportsman and the destruction of young 
and adult quail effected by cats is rated as great as that from 
any other agency. "The English keeper," the writer says, "well 
understands the injury done in the preserves by the domestic cat 
and wages against it a war as bitter, and as uncompromising, as 
that which he carries on against the stoat or any of the hawks." 

The number of stray cats at large in the United States is 
enormous. It is stated in "Bird Lore" that the number put out 
of existence in New York City by the Society for Prevention of 
Cruelty of Animals during the first nine months of 1905 totaled 
53,938 ! The stray cats are usually the worst offenders and if 
means could be adopted to effect their slaughter and to instruct 
people in the danger that they inflict upon bird life by allowing 
cats to run wild and leaving them behind when they move 
away, some good would be accomplished. The whole question 
of the economic value of the cat, it seems to us, would be a 
valuable line of investigation. If the destruction of mice offsets 
the destruction of game and insectivorous birds, then the cat 
deserves consideration, but if the keeping of cats is to be regarded 
as merely a "luxury," or if they are proven to be more noxious 
than beneficial to wild life, then their possession should be 
guarded with stringent restrictions, or taxation. 

Is it not time that organizations of sportsmen, Audubon 
societies and the Department of Agriculture join forces in giving 
the cat question serious attention? 

Page four 




Life History, Habits and Recognition Marks of this Important 

Trout of Western Waters 


Captain William Clark, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, was first 
to describe this great trout of Pacific waters. The Captain knew the 
eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) very well, and the great lake 
trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which to most of us on the west coast is 
an entire stranger. Both these trout, natives of eastern American waters — 
the former found in most streams north of the Ohio river from the Kocky 
mountain summit to Labrador, as well as in the lakes of the Adirondack 
region, Canada and New England, and the lake trout in lakes only, appear- 
ing in unexpected localities from Lake Superior to Moosehead — were evi 
dently placed in Clark's zoology. Their markings differ greatly, but in 
both the spots and bars are of a buff yellow on a dusky general tint; 
though fontinalis has certain brilliant additional spots of glowing crimson, 
and is more highly-colored and beautiful — or so most writers say. I will no 
longer subscribe to this opinion. The Clark trout is more graceful in form, 
and not less beautiful in color, though not so gaudy. 

When the Captain saw this western trout he recognized it as a member 
of the great salmo family, and was evidently astonished at the reversal of 
the color-markings as compared with eastern trout. Its spots were black, 
on an amber and olive background. 

Most of us Oregon anglers have had far greater opportunity than 
Captain Clark had to note the peculiarities of the "Cutthroat"; but you 
may stand at Constantine's aquarium any day and hear men and boys 
diseussing the trout therein, many stoutly maintaining that the one eastern 
brook trout now in the tank is "just the same" as the score of black- 
spotted trout. They know (or say they do) that they have caught the 
former whenever they have fished our westside streams. It takes about 
five minutes' argument and demonstration to make these confident ob- 
servers perceive that the spots on the one fontinalis are buff; and on all 
the others black. 

All but one of our five Pacific trout are thus black-spotted. The 
exception is the Dolly Varden, a char like the eastern brook and lake trout, 
and spotted less profusely with buff markings and a few rosy spots. 

Page five 



Naturalists derive thirteen varieties from the parent stock, inhabiting 
all coast streams from southeastern Alaska to northern California, and 
eastward to the headwaters of the Columbia and Eio Grande. Some mem- 
bers of this family have even crossed the Eocky mountains and inhabit 
the high tributaries of the Missouri. How the trout crossed the mountains 
is too long a story for this brief article. 

A Native Son Angling- in the McXenzie 

The Cutthroat seems to be most abundant on the west side of the 
Cascades and Sierras. In western Willamette tributaries and coast rivers 
it is the only trout save the Steelhead and the Mason's trout. The latter 
is not found west of the Coast range, in my experience. 

Many of the lakes high in the Cascades, Blue mountains and Sierras 
also are peopled by this fish, and in some lakes nearer sea level it grows 
to very large size. Old millponds on streams of the Willamette valley and 
westward are usually stocked with Cutthroat of a pound weight and more 
in large numbers, but from such ponds they are mostly caught with bait. 
When the water is ruffled by a breeze on a warm afternoon, they will 
frequently take the fly handsomely. 


Some of his characteristics are sufficiently distinct to make it a simple 
matter to recognize the Clarkii. Head length (as compared to the total 
length) is one of the permanent anatomical indications. Its length is con- 
tained a little less than four times in the length of the body; or its head 
is a little more than one-fifth of its entire length. This is about one-sixth 
greater than that of Rainbow, Steelhead or Mason's trout or western Ore- 
gon brook trout (if there is any such fish), as some of our great and 

Pag-e six 


uncertain naturalists call the fifth member of the family. There is but 
one other to consider — and if you cannot distinguish Dolly Varden from 
the others after your first opportunity for comparison, give yourself no 
further trouble to get acquainted with any of our trout. Your case is 

The mouth is relatively bigger, and cut farther back than any but 
the Dolly Varden. You'll see by opening the lower jaw without stretching 
abnormally that the angle of the opening extends a bit behind the center 
of the eye pupil. In the Steelhead-Eainbow tribe the mouth angle at the 
same distension reaches only to the front line of pupil. 

Books descriptive of our trout say nothing about a very distinctive 
feature of the Clark trout, but which seems to be an "easy mark." Ob- 
serve his eye! It is smaller than the Eainbow's. It protrudes from the 
socket very prominently. The dark olive color of the upper part of the 
head extends over the iris almost to the edge of the pupil, and then a very 
narrow golden band lies at the inner edge of the iris. Even the spots 
peculiar to the skin of the head are present on the outer margin of the iris. 

In marked contrast, the eyes of Rainbow, Steelhead and Dolly Varden 
are large, staring, and the iris of a pale yellow in a wide circle unmarked 
by spots and shading. The full, prominent eye of the Clark trout is mobile 
— more so than in other species. Trout cannot roll their eyes in their 
orbits, as we do, but the eye is built up beneath by a muscular cushion, 
and this swings the eye as if set in a "universal joint." Perhaps you 
have noticed that the pupils are never exactly round in the eyes of trouu, 
but balloon or pear-shaped. 

The tail of the Cutthroat is rounded at the tip of each lobe and roundly 
indented in the middle of the margin. Steelhead and Rainbow are very 
different (in adult fish) and both are frequently called "square-tailed" 
because of the straight line of the tail end. 

Another reliable but troublesome anatomical test of the Clark trout 
is the number of scales in a continuous row from head to tail. This trout 
has about 170. The Rainbow and Steelhead have about 135 in a row. 


These vary greatly, and correspond so closely at certain times, and in 
certain conditions, to the colors and markings of Rainbow and Steelhead 
that you cannot depend on these tokens. Taken in quiet, deep pools, much 
shaded, all trout are much darker in general color and spots. From such 
waters you may look for deep olive or brownish general color above and 
very little white on the belly; the dusky color reaching almost entirely 
around the fish. The fins also are darker and spots very numerous, large 
and black. Cheeks are deep olive and purple. 

But fish of this species taken in rapid, shallow streams, with light, 
gravelly or rocky bottom are amber in color with a greenish reflection, and 

Pag-e seven 


all the colors are paler and more delicate; and the opercle gleams like a 
splendid opal. 

There is yet another phase of color. The sea-run specimens which we 
catch in the Coast streams in the later autumn months are so different in 
color that most anglers scoff at the statement, from whatever source, that 
the " salmon trout " is a ' 'Cutthroat." "* * * convinced against his 
will, he's of the same opinion still." 

I am sure that nearly all our so-called salmon trout are Cutthroats. 
Though they may seem spotless, pure silver at a first glance, you can see 
all the characteristic markings — faintly as through a veil — if you will hold 
the fish in certain lights. The spots are there; but please understand that 
the spots of all our trout are not on their scales, but on the skin beneath. 
They are veiled by the rich accumulation of silver acquired in their life 
in the sea. 

A short stay in the fresh water removes this silver coating, and each 
scale becomes as transparent as glass, and then you see the spots plainly 
through the scales. 

Still unconvinced? Well, prove it for yourself. Put a few "salmon 
trout ' ' in their silver coats into a box of slats and leave them anchored in 
a river. In a few days or weeks you will find your trout all alive and well, 
but transformed to fish which you will not doubt a moment to be genuine 

The peculiar distinctive trait which has given this species its rather 
objectionable name "Cutthroat," is the pair of red bars or stripes underside 
the lower jaw or mandible. There is a fold in the skin on each side under 
the jaw, and when the skin is distended these folds usually show a vivid 
red bar within, which is a narrow stripe, but still quite striking when the 
folds are not distended. This bar is redder and wider on the Cutthroat 
than any other trout; but the Eainbow and Mason's trout both show a pink 
or red band or stripe in the same fold. This red mark is redder in a Rain- 
bow when that fish is in his brightest colors, at spawning time, than in 
the Cutthroat when the latter is in his paler dress; therefore it is often 
a cause of confusion. 

The Cutthroat in the sea-run or silver condition is almost free of this 
red throat band; it has paled to a faint pink, and can hardly be noticed 
except by opening the fold in the jaw. The mark disappears from the 
Eainbows for months after the spawning season, but seems to be more con- 
stant in the Cutthroat, and at most times more prominent. 

Will the honorable angler — naturalist — reader accept my proposal to 
call this fish Clark trout? That name would be brief, definite and logical, 
and would dispose of the murderous "Cutthroat,'.' which is equally descrip- 
tive of the Eainbow, and "black-spotted," which confuses the Clark trout 
with every other western trout, except Dolly Varden. 

Page eight 



The black spot which it a trait of this Claris trout, is [usually larger 
and darker on this than the throe others, which are also black-spotted. 

The spots are not quite black, and indeed they become in certain conditions 
a pale dusky hue. They vary also greatly as to number in different indi- 
viduals, -'mi'- being thickly sprinkled and others sparsely. Males are more 
distinctly spotted. I think no man can recognize this trout by his spots 
alone; yet the spots in their placing, color and peculiarities seem to have 
a special character — to "belong'"'' to each variety — though it would be hard 
to say just why. Anglers of Cascade streams have a better chance for 
comparison than those who. like myself, fish almost wholly in the Coast 
streams, -where we never see a Kainbow or Dolly. 


in April in many westside streams your flies are seized by myriads of 
little fingerlings that rush eagerly upon them, frequently preventing your 
catching one legal fish in a day. If you have patience to examine these 
innocents you'll see that they are as silvery as the big sea-run trout of 
early winter. Many are young salmon, and not distinguishable by spots or 
marking from trout. Vou ean easily know them by examining the anal fin. 
Tn all trout of whatever species you will find not more than eleven (usually 

ten; rays or bones in this fin not counting two short, rudimentary ones 

at the forward margin. In all the salmon there are sixteen — or not lesa 
than fourteen in any case. 

These smolts. if salmon, we know to be on their way to the sea. The 
trout in this stage are believed to be making their journey seaward too; 
but it appears incredible that these little fish of less than an ounce in 
weight will return only six months later weighing ten to twenty ounces; 
yet this is the belief of many naturalists. 

If true, it is hardly more marvelous than the growth of the salmon. 
I have examined the scale-markings on Chinook salmon almost three years 
old, the specimen weighing then less than one pound. These were reared 
in captivity at Bonneville, and were not half as big as their brethren who 
had gone to sea as smolts, six or eight months old. But similar examination 
of many Chinooks taken from the sea show weights under three pounds at 
three years old; yet the biggest salmon I examined in 1913, weighing above 
seventy pounds, showed by microscopic examination of the scales an age 
of hut four-and-a-half years! 

Other tests made last year showed many fish six years old and upward, 
which weighed only twenty to thirty pounds. None so far are reported 
among our western salmon of over seven years old. In Scotland, where 
many thousand tests have been made, no salmon of above eight years old 
(by the scale test) has been seen. 

It arjpears certain, and is but natural, that greater numbers of Cutthroat 
trout go to sea from Oregon waters than any other trout. Streams of the 

Page nine 


Coast region are populated almost entirely by the Cutthroat, and though 
Rainbow and Dolly Varden are abundant in the seas of Alaska, our trout 
of these species, most in streams east of the Cascades, seem to be too remote 
from the sea to descend from so great a distance in great numbers. A few 
months given to careful investigation would solve many important ques- 
tions pertaining to migration of trout to the sea and their return to the 


Their habits change with their growth, as ours. The fry, as soon as 
they have become free of the egg sac, live mostly in the shallows at the 
margin of the streams. This is their only chance of safety, fur the big 
trout and other fish cannot and dare not pursue the fry into these shallows, 

At six months old they have become able to take care of themselves 
by darting and dodging out of the way of their enemies, but they still seek 
comparative safety in shallow rapids, where they feed on insects and little 
creatures of the water. In very favorable conditions a Cutthroat of one 
year old is six inches long, but most are smaller. In cold and rapid waters 
and little spring-brooks they grow slowly, but when full-grown in such 
waters rarely exceed eight inches. This is true of all our trout in such 
conditions, many being adult, spawning fish even of this small size. 

Until their second year all trout and salmon bear "parr" marks — six 
to nine broad vertical marks of a bluish hue. Most of us know these parr 
marks, for we catch more parrs than "fish." 

At two years old they are adult, eight to twelve inches long, and spawn 
for the first time. Then the males are in darker and more vivid colors, 
and often purple or rosy-sided, which confuses them with the Rainbows. 
The males also acquire a considerable increase of length of jaw, and the 
upper jaw becomes slightly crooked, like the jaw of the breeding salmon, 
but not nearly so exaggerated. These trout and all their kind spawn in 
the upper waters and small streams, in the fall months in most rivers, but 
in some very high mountain waters — especially lakes — after the ice melts 
m spring. 

The habits of the kind of Cutthroat which we most admire — say a fish 
of a pound or more, may be said to be despicable. This fish is too wise 
by far. He will not even rise to a struggling grasshopper on the surface 
in streams much fished. In great pools ten feet deep or more you may see 
him with a dozen of his kind, balancing and wavering in the clear green 
flood, close to the bottom, darting out now and then upon some luckless 
minnow or drifting insect. You try all your wiles in vain. He may start 
upward a foot or two when your flies first touch the water, but even that 
moment of hope soon passes. I shall not try to tell you how to catch him. 
If I knew I should catch him myself. 

On some rare day you may find him off his guard. It happens once in 
a while — quite too rarely. I remember one April day — but if I told the 

Fag-e ten 


story it wouldn't be credited and it wouldn't enlighten the reader regarding 
the "habits" of Clark's trout. To be sure, Indians used to catch them 
even without a hook. 

When it is my luck to take a Cutthroat of a foot long or over my 
flies have usually got out of my sight, carried by the stream into some deep 
eddy whose surface I have fished in vain; perhaps drifted under a great 
uprooted tree. Then a sudden straightening of the line warns me, or that 
fense that surely is not sight nor feeling impels me to strike! In such a 
bippy moment the Clark trout is quite the equal of any trout in fighting 


Nature provides for the perpetuation of races by a vast progeny. A* 
the seeds of a single thistle may sow an acre, so the eggs of a few fish, 
if all should grow to maturity, would populate a river. But a monstrous 
proportion of all species are destined to be food for their own or other tribes, 
especially in their fry stage. 

The infant trout that slinks under the stone or later seeks the thin 
shallow at the margin of the stream, becomes active and quick in turning 
when he is six months old and perhaps three inches long. Ninety out of 
every hundred have been eaten before this growth is attained. Nine out 
of ten of these will go to fill the maw of larger fish. These little ones are 
feeding on smaller ones of their own and other kinds. 

As a swallow escapes the hawk, so these little fish often escape their 
big enemies — as a boy of ten outruns or outwits a man of forty. 

But the two-pounder lying in the deep, dark pool under the log, too 
crafty to take the risk of rising for our flies, has a keen appetite and good 
digestion. He will easily swallow a fish half his own length or a frog or 
crawfish. When so gorged he pays no attention to a trifling feather toy 
ten feet above him on the surface, but may deign to take a dessert of a 
worm or shrimp that the current brings down to his lair. 

The big ones drive the next smaller out of the deepest and safest 
hovers, and these dispossess the next smaller from less desirable haunts. 

By late August anglers ask each other, ' ' Where have the big trout 
gone?" If we could swim the long, dark pools like the mink with his keen 
eyes, we could readily answer. The clearness of the stream in late summer 
and the meagre flow of water drivei the wary patriarch to the shade of 
the inaccessible drift-pile, the big spring in the river bottom, and the lazy 
pool, just freshened by the current that searches the crannies of the bank 
and the hollows among the rocks. 

No trout rushes at the artificial fly so fiercely as the fingerling salmon 
in April. And the attack of these is very different from that of trout. 
The latter rush upward from the depths, and if they miss being hooked 
plunge vertically down again. The young salmon seems to be in the air 
before the flies touch the water. They dash in horizontal arcs, swift, silver- 

Fag-e eleven 


flashing, upon the lure, which usually is so stiffly fuzzy that they cannot 
mouth it, fortunately. Ten in a second will have a try at the hackle, and 
in ten seconds all have "got wise," and not another sign of life will you 
get in that spot. These salmon fry are devoured in vast numbers by the 
Cutthroat and Bainbow trout. 

The Cutthroat is not a leaper when hooked, and only small fish will 
leap out of water at your fly, attempting to knock it under water before it 
can take wing. The large fish are wondrous shy. But I am relating the 
experience and observation of the unfortunate modern city angler who 
fishes only streams that are overfished — streams blighted by the motorcycle 
and automobile. It may be that "way up the North Fork" the big Clark 
trout are yearning for our arrival and ready to take any fly we offer them, 
even in midday's blazing sun. 


(Note — Since the publication of the list of sportsmen 's clubs in our 
April and June issues, we have received the following additions and 
changes. Information concerning changes of officers or clubs will be ap- 
preciated as we desire to keep the list up to date. — Editor.) 

Baker County. 

Huntington Eod and Gun Club, Huntington — T. J. Thurston, President; 
J. M. Cunningham, Secretary; W. H. Lambert, Treasurer; F. M. Cough, 
Field Manager. 

Haines Eod and Gun Club— Eodger Biswell, President; W. D. Beck, 

New Bridge Eod and Gun Club — W. E. Martin, President; Barney 
Eidson, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Pine Valley Eod and Gun Club, Halfway — George Gillett, President; 
A. V. Lansing, Vice-President; Frank Cromwell, Secretary and Treasurer. 

The Eichland Eod and Gun Club, Eichland — William L. Flower, Presi- 
dent; Charles E. Barber, Vice-President; W. G. Ealey, Secretary and Treas- 

Clackamas County. 

Estacada Eod and Gun Club, Estacada — Hugh Mendenhall, President; 
Cecil Schock, Secretary; F. Jorg, Treasurer. 

Douglas County. 
Eiddle Eod and Gun Club— E. C. Geer, President; Will Q. Brown, Vice- 
President; I. P. Gardner, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Union County. 
Wing, Fin and Fleetfoot Club, La Grande — L. M. Hoyt, President; 
J. T. Williamson, Vice-President; A. A. Wenzle, Secretary; C. E. Harding, 

Pagre twelve 


Medical Springs Kod and Gun Club, Medical Springs — James Wirth, 
President; P. J. Powers, Secretary and Treasurer. 

North Powder Kod and Gun Club, North Powder — Chris Johnson, 
President; J. T. Hobbs, Vice-President; L. B. Russell, Secretary and 

Summerville Rod and Gun Club, Summerville — Alex. McKenzie, Presi- 
dent; J. M. Choate, Vice-President; D. R. McKenzie, Secretary and 

Fern Hobbs Rod and Gun Club, Cove — Logan E. Anderson, President; 
Hugh McCall, Secretary and Treasurer. 

Wallowa County. 

The Lostine Rod and Gun Club, Lostine — J. H. Jackson, President; 
A. C. Beers, Secretary. 

Flora Rod and Gun Club, Flora — Dr. George B. King, President; W. C. 
Moore, Vice-President; H. C. Davis, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Grant County. 

Long Creek Rod and Gun Club, Long Creek — -G. C. Conger, President; 
Phil Newmyer, Vice-President; E. A. Shields, Secretary. 

Monument Rod and Gun Club, Monument — F. W. Cupper, President; 
G. R. Wagner, Vice-President; W. E. White, Secretary. 

Austin Rod and Gun Club, Austin — N. L. Taliaferro, President; Jack 
Edwards, Vice-President; George Seymore, Secretary. 

Malheur County. 

Ontario Rod and Gun Club, Ontario — W. H. Doolittle, President; D. M. 
Taggert, Vice-President; C. E. Boyer, Secretary and Treasurer. 


Mr. F. H. Fawcett, of Narrows, Harney county, reports the following 
about the nesting of a pair of burrowing owls in his locality, which shows 
this bird is of economic value in destroying harmful animals: 

"One hole, which extended back about six feet and at a depth of 
about sixteen inches from the surface, seemed to be the storeroom and 
contained five mice, two gophers, one "sage rat," one young jackrabbit, 
one crawfish and one beetle. These were buried in dry horse manure which 
lined the entire length of the burrow. 

"About eighty yards distant was another burrow six or eight feet in 
length and thirty inches below the surface, containing a nest with ten eggs. 
The nest was composed of dry horse and cow manure, considerable of the 
material being scattered about the opening and along the burrow. One 
dead frog was found just outside. 

' ' Since the one pair of owls was all we could locate in the vicinity, 
it is quite evident the commissary and the nest belong to the same pair. ' ' 

Page thirteen 



The federal law for the protection of migratory birds pro- 
vides that it is unlawful to shoot between sunset and sunrise. 
For the benefit of sportsmen in game district No. 1, which com- 
prises western Oregon, District Forecaster E. A. Beals of the 
Weather Bureau has furnished the following table for the guid- 
ance of duck hunters during the coming season : 

Date, 1914. Time of sunrise. Time of sunset. 

Sept. 27 6:05 " : 5:59 

Oct. 4 6:13 5:46 

Oct. 11 6:23 5:33 

Oct. 18 6:32 5:20 

Oct. 25 6:42 5:08 

Nov. 1 6:52 4:57 

Nov. 8 7:02 4:48 

Nov. 15 7:12 4:40 

Nov. 22 7:21 4:33 

Nov. 29 7:30 4:29 

Dec. 6 7:38 4:26 

Dec. 13 7:45 4:26 

Dec. 20 7:50 4:28 

Date, 1915. 

Jan. 3 7:53 4:38 

Jan. 10 7:52 4:46 

Jan. 17 7:48 4:55 

For the guidance of those sportsmen in district No. 2, eastern 
Oregon, the following table has been furnished by the office of 
the Weather Bureau at Baker : 

Date, 1914. Time of sunrise. Time of sunset. 

Sept. 27 5:44 5:39 

Oct. 4 5:53 5:27 

Oct. 11 6:02 5:14 

Oct. 18 6:11 5:02 

Oct. 25 6:20 4:50 

Nov. 1 6:30 4:40 

Nov. 8 6:39 4:30 

Nov. 15 6:49 4:22 

Nov 22 6:58 4:16 

Nov. 29 7:07 4:12 

Dec. 6 7:15 4:10 

Dec. 13... 7:21 4:10 

Dec. 20 7:26 4:12 

Dec. 27 7:29 4:16 

Date, 1915. 

Jan. 3 7:30 4:22 

Jan. 10..... 7:28 4:29 

Jan. 17 7:29 4:38 

Page fourteen 



Deputy Game Warden, Narrows, Oregon 

On the 19th day of last January deputy game warden F. W. Triska and 
I started from Burns, Oregon, for the purpose of studying game conditions 
during the winter in the Steens mountains and surrounding country. 

When we left Burns the ground was covered with a foot or more of 
well-packed snow and to this was being added a new coat. The first night 
was spent at Lawen, some twenty miles to the southeast, at which place the 
snow was six or eight inches deep. During the next forenoon, as we 
journeyed south, the snow fell so thick and fast we could scarcely see our 
way. We nooned at Waverly, having traveled but fourteen miles during 
the half day. About three o'clock in the afternoon we found ourselves 
on bare ground, and when we reached the James Mahon ranch, in Anderson 
valley, that evening we found the ground dry and no snow in sight except 
on the hills. 

A day was spent at the Mahon ranch in a vain endeavor to find some 
of the twelve Chinese pheasants that were liberated at this place last 
summer. While there is an abundance of shelter in the way of willows, 
rye grass, etc., we could see no feed for these fowls. Coyote tracks were 
noticeable everywhere and, following up Camp creek to the snow, we there 
saw a few wildcat tracks. 

On the divide between Anderson valley and the Juniper ranch, we 
found the snow from six inches to a foot in depth with drifts three or four 
feet deep at the head of Juniper grade. At Juniper lake there was but 
little snow though the lake itself was covered with about a foot of clear 
ice. The waters of this lake are but slightly alkaline and, being fed by 
a mountain stream, I believe it should be stocked with fish. At present, 
there are no fish in any of the waters of this section. 

While camping at Mann lake on the 24th, snow fell to the depth of 
four or five inches, but did not lie long in the valley. 

Along the foothills to the west of Mann lake and the Alvord country 
are a series of thermal springs about which feed is plentiful throughout 
the year, and here lies one of the favored winter ranges of the mule deer. 
Several days were spent in this locality and many deer were seen. We 
climbed well up into the Steens where the snow was several feet deep, but 
the only animal life found there was the porcupine which exists on juniper 
berries, bark of trees, etc. We had hoped to locate a few mountain sheep 
in this section but were not successful. 

At the Alvord ranch we were able to locate five of the twelve Chinese 
pheasants liberated there last year. The ones seen are all females, three 
of which stay about in the orchard with the chickens. It appears to me 

Pag-e fifteen 


that if there were two or three males placed with them this spring it would 
insure the establishment of this colony. Large flocks of mountain and 
valley quail are scattered about over the ranch and during the heavy snow& 
in the early part of the winter were fed by Mr. F. H. Clerf, owner of the 
ranch. We found about two thousand mallard ducks and a few Canada 
geese wintering along the lower end of the Alvord ranch, bordering the 
Alvord desert, where there are a number of large, open ponds. 

Two cow elk, remnant of the Devine herd, were seen on the foothills 
back of the ranch. They are in excellent condition and were a male 
put with them I see no reason why a herd could not be built up at this 
place. The range is ideal and Mr. Clerf offers them protection. 

Some six or eight miles to the east of Mann Lake is a group of hills 
upon which but little, if any, snow lies during the winter. At their eastern 
base are a number of hot springs and it is claimed this was once the winter 
range of the mountain sheep. We were unable to locate any of these 
animals, but did find a few deer and antelope on the western slope. We 
were informed that about ten head of mountain sheep were seen two or 
three years ago on Sheephead mountain, ten or fifteen miles to the northeast, 
but our time being limited, we could not extend our search to that region. 

Along the foothills of the Steens, near Wild Horse, we found the feed 
good and many deer wintering. From this point, we climbed to the tops 
of several high peaks still in the hope of finding mountain sheep, but were 
unable to sight any, though I feel confident a few still inhabit this portion 
of the Steens. 

At the W. D. Huffman ranch and at other places in the Wild Horse 
section, quail are often fed during severe weather. 

In the valley near Serrano Point are hundreds of acres of land 
covered more or less with a dense growth of buck brush, a shrub resembling 
somewhat the wild mahogany, which is laden with berries during late 
summer and fall, some of which were still clinging to the bushes at the 
time of our visit; furnishing an abundance of food for the quail and other 
birds that abound there. These berries are tart and make an excellent 
jelly. In these thickets the deer rear their young, but at this season of 
the year no deer are to be found there. 

Many persons contend that deer from the Steens mountains cross the 
Alvord desert and winter in the low hills to the east of the White Horse 
ranch, but we were unable to locate any considerable number there. While 
riding that range we noted a few wolf tracks. 

Quantities of grain are now being raised in the vicinity of Trout creek, 
and I believe that to be a suitable place for the planting of the Chinese 
pheasant and bobwhite quail. Quite a few California quail and a few 
deer are to be found on the Trout creek ranch. Trout creek itself, once 
noted for being one of the best trout streams of southeastern Oregon, was 
visited by a waterspout last summer and, like the Blitzen river, was gutted 
the entire length and the majority of the fish destroyed. 

Page sixteen 


On the divide between Field 's station and Catlow valley, we saw 
numerous signs of the sage hen. It is in this section that many of these 
birds do their nesting. Their chief disturbance, of late years, seems to 
have been the bands of sheep that are grazed there during the early spring. 

Along the foothills bordering Catlow valley on the east is one of the 
very best winter ranges now afforded the mule deer of this section. The 
native bunch grass here abounds in its original splendor, numerous springs 
issue from the hillside and the mountain above is fringed with juniper 
timber. It is about the rimrocks of this district that the trapper reaps a 
harvest of wild cats during the winter months. 

Very little snow falls in Catlow valley and this was, until recently, 
the winter range of thousands of antelope, but the valley is now being 
rapidly settled and these beautiful animals will have to seek pasture 
elsewhere. The southern portion of the valley, which is least settled, still 
supports a considerable number, but in the northern portion we were able 
to find but one band of twenty-two. While still in this valley, on the 14th 
day of February, we saw a few Canada geese just returned from the south. 

When we returned to Burns on the 21st of February we found the 
place still buried with a foot of snow. 


Some time ago, while fly casting for rainbow trout on Meacham 
creek, an incident occurred which strengthens my belief that trout and 
salmon do not experience acute pain or shock by reason of the wounds 
which they receive when captured by the angler. This is the 
second almost identical example which I have observed and it seems to me 
to bear out this theory so strongly I feel impelled to relate it in detail in 
the belief that it will prove interesting to your readers. 

On the occasion in question I was fishing in company with Edgar Aver- 
ill, district deputy warden, and I showed him the fish which I took and 
which, illustrated the point, and he can fully corroborate my statements as 
to the facts. 

The small and medium sized trout were rising pretty frequently but 
they were making a lot of false motions, so that but a small proportion of 
the "rises" proved to be "strikes." At one cast I "raked" a fish good 
and hard but the hold evidently tore out, for my cast came back to me 
empty when the strength of the rod was given to it. 

Within the space of a few minutes and within a yard or so of where 
this fish had been hooked and "raked" I hooked and killed a small trout 
about eight inches in length. As I. took the fish in my hand, to disen- 
gage the fly and kill it, I noticed something wrong on its side just back of 
the gill opening. A closer examination revealed the astounding fact that 
the body cavity of the fish was torn open by a fresh wound sufficiently 
large to cause the stomach and other organs of the fish to protrude 
through the opening, and nearly half of the stomach was actually hanging 

Fag-e seventeen 


on the outside of the fish's body when it had struck my fly the second time 
and been hooked in the extreme end of its lips and been gathered in. I 
feel certain, from all the circumstances, that the wounded fish was the same 
one that I had previously "raked," and this incident seems to me to prove 
that this wound, which would have caused a fatal shock to a mammal or 
bird, did not produce sufficient pain or discomfort to the fish to make it 
suspend its active search for and seizure of food. 

The other similar incident which I referred to happened a number of 
years ago on the Umatilla, and in that case the fish was wounded in a 
slightly different part of its abdomen so that, instead of the stomach, the 
liver was hanging outside the body when I took the trout in my hand to 
take it from the hook. C. K. GEANSTON, 

Pendleton, Oregon. 


Good reports have come from various parts of the state concerning 
the birds that were liberated from the state game farm early in the year. 

Mr. J. H. Booth, of Eoseburg, says that on the 2500-acre game refuge 
where six pairs of Hungarian partridges were liberated they stayed about 
the prune orchard and alfalfa field. When the alfalfa was cut the first 
time they found two nests. When it was cut the second time they found 
three nests. All the nests were preserved and the eggs hatched, and at 
the present time they have five large coveys. 

One nest of Hungarian partridges which Eoy Booth saw contained 
twenty eggs. This is a remarkably large setting. The largest previous 
record was a nest of eighteen eggs near Salem. 

Mr. H. K. Hocked, of Yoncalla, Douglas county, reports that he fre- 
quently sees the Eeeves ' pheasants which were liberated in that locality. 
There were fifteen to twenty young birds in a flock which was seen during 
the summer. 

J. B. Welch reports that he saw a covey of nine Hungarian partridges 
on Cedar island between Portland and Oregon City on August 4. The birds 
were quite small, showing that it was either a second hatching or a very 
late brood. This is the second covey of Hungarian partridges that has 
been seen in that locality. Another covey of twelve or fourteen was seen 
near Jennings Lodge. 

On August 3, S. G. Jewett saw three Hungarian partridges near Eeed 
college, all of which were mature birds. 

Mr. T. C. Queen, secretary of the Dufur Eod and Gun Club, says that 
the Chinese pheasants liberated in his locality have done remarkably well 

Page eighteen 


during the past season. He reports seeing one flock of eighteen young 

Dr. L. E. Hibbard, of Burns, who recently visited his old home, eleven 
miles east of Salem, says that on September 7 he saw a bobwhite quail 
with a covey of young birds that were not more than one day old. The 
chicks were so small that they were hardly able to scuttle away in the 
grass. This is a very late record for the hatching of game birds. 

Many reports came in during the latter part of July and the first pait 
of August telling of Chinese pheasant chicks that had been found, showing 
also that there were many late broods. 

The past summer has been unusually favorable for pheasants and other 
game birds because there have been no cold, rainy spells. 

The young birds observed in August are undoubtedly from second 
broods inasmuch as the first broods of young birds were seen early in May. 


Mr. A. J. Sherwood, of Coquille, reports that a farmer near that vicin- 
ity mowed over the nest of a Hungarian partridge in which he counted 
twelve eggs. He was afraid the bird would not return to the nest, but he 
went back next day and found thirteen eggs instead of twelve and the 
bird was still there. Those birds which were liberated last March are doing 
well, according to reports, and they will make an important addition to the 
game of that section. 

Another farmer near Fairview reports seeing a good covey of young 
Chinese pheasants belonging to one of the pheasants liberated last spring. 


Mr. M. S. Durbin, of the U. S. Forest Service, at Waldport, counted a 
band of twenty-five elk at the head of Drift creek. He says he thinks 
there are forty or fifty in the entire band and they have been increasing 
rapidly during the past few years There were several calves during tne 
present season. Another band of twenty elk has been reported by tne 
forest officers north of Yachats. The forest rangers and guards in Lin- 
coln have done a great deal toward protecting the elk in that region. 


That wild rice as a food for ducks can be grown successfully in the 
northern part of eastern Oregon has been demonstrated by George Roberts, 
of Pendleton. Mr. Roberts has a small farm on the Umatilla river, four 
miles west of Pendleton. Three years ago he planted about five pounds of 
wild rice. This year he has an acre as a result of the one planting and 
the crop is heavy. 

Page nineteen 



Dr. L. E. Hibbard, of Burns, Harney county, says that a year ago last 
winter he saw a bobcat driven to the edge of town by two coyotes. The 
coyotes acted very much as an ordinary dog does with a house cat. The 
bobcat took refuge up a telegraph pole. Dr. Hibbard rushed out with a 
gun, figuring that he could get at least one coyote on the ground and also 
the bobcat before he came down. He took a shot at one of the coyotes, 
but missed. At the report of the gun the bobcat jumped from the top of 
the pole, landing in the snow, and all three animals escaped. 


Ed Anderson and Jack Peterson report that on July 31 they saw fifteen 
elk, one of which was a calf, on China creek in western Lane county. 

John Thomas reports that several elk have been seen quite often 
crossing the stage road below Gold Beach in Curry county. He also reports 
that several calves are with the herd of elk in the Hunters creek district. 


Umatilla county hunters have been more successful so far this season 
than for many years. More deer were killed during the first half of 
August than were killed last year during August and September. 

William McKinney, of Pendleton, believes he has bagged the largest 
buck killed in Oregon this year. The animal was killed near the Purrington 
sawmill in Malheur county. It weighed 304 pounds after being dressed 
and its antlers had a spread of 37 inches. It was a mule deer. 


The shooting season for Chinese pheasants, Oregon 's greatest game 
bird, opened Thursday, October 1. The season applies to district No. 1, 
except the counties of Jackson, Josephine, Coos and Curry. 

It is permissible only to kill the male birds, but hunters by the thou- 
sand were in the field on the first day and thousands of the fine birds were 
killed. Eeports indicate that the shooting was good, many of the hunters 
securing the full bag limit of five birds. The birds were very tame at 
first and were easily killed, but within a very few 'days they had become 
more wary and during the remainder of the season they will be harder to 
find and more difficult to shoot. 

Page twenty 

What are You Doing 
to Help ? 

The game warden cannot protect the game 
without your help. Game laws, like other laws, are 
of little value unless public sentiment is back of 
them. The present difficulties of game protection 
and propagation can be overcome whenever enough 
unselfish persons take an active interest in the cause. 

In some localities, there is a prejudice against the 
game laws and their enforcement, A few people 
regard game laws as a sort of class legislation for 
the benefit of the sportsman and of no particular 
advantage to the farmer. This is not true. Game 
laws are not passed with the idea of furnishing sport 
for a limited number of people, but to protect useful 
birds and animals for the benefit of the people as a 

If there were no game laws, there would be no 
restrictions toward people roaming through the 
country and hunting at any season of the year. Pot 
hunters would not only kill game during the breeding 
season, but destroy birds that are of great economic 
value to the farmer. With no game laws and all open 
season, the farmer and land owner would suffer far 
more from careless hunters than at present. 


MAR 24 1917 


HHiiuiHiiimiiiMiMiiHMimtiM in minium nun minimi 



Black Bear Cub. 



By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II 

5c a copy— 50c a year 

Number 1 1 

mm iiiiimiiiimitiimiiiiiimi 


Copyright 1914, by William L. Finley 


Where the Bounty Law Fails — Editorial 1 

Effective Game Protection — Editorial 2 

Trapping Timber Wolves — 

By Ben S. Patton — One Illustration 4 

Variation in Winter and Summer Pelage 9 

Birds and Insect Pests — One Illustration 10 

Reports on Partridges and Quail 14 

Our Friend — The Shrew — By R. Bruce Horsfall 15 

New $225,000 Wild Life Refuge 17 

Game Conditions About Ashland 18 

Bear Caught with Crawfish Bait 19 

Closed Season on Six-inch Trout 20 

Late Broods of Pheasants and Quail 20 

Record Rainbow Trout 20 

Notes from Klamath County 20 

A Menace 21 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II NOVEMBER, 1914 Number 11 


A year ago last June the County Clerk of Tillamook county 
was authorized to pay twenty-five cents apiece bounty on dead 
gophers and moles. On June 4, 1913, the first payment was made 
and by July 29, 1913, there were 16,307 dead animals presented 
for bounty. This made a total of $4,076.75 paid out of the county 

Both these animals are exceedingly common over the whole 
of Tillamook county. The gopher (Thomomys hesperis) is one 
of the smallest species found in Oregon and lives for the most 
part in pasture and hay fields where the damage done is com- 
paratively small. 

The mole (S cap anus townsendi) is an insectivorous mammal 
and feeds mainly on worms, grubs and insects. Probably the 
worst that can be said against these animals in Tillamook county 
is that during harvest time the mowing machines are badly 
dulled by cutting through the mounds of loose dirt thrown up in 
the fields. 

We are told that one person made an average of one hun- 
dred dollars per month trapping moles and gophers in one local- 
ity where they were abundant. Another person earned about 
eighty dollars per month. While the moles and gophers were 
diminished in number in these places, the work was in no 
way a benefit to the farmers in other parts of the county where 
little or no trapping was done. 

The four thousand dollars which Tillamook county paid in 
bounties is a poor investment for the following reasons : 

First, there is no more reason for a county paying a bounty 
on moles and gophers than on rats and mice. These are pests 
that have to be battled with by the individual landowner rather 
than by the county or state. 

Second, if the moles and gophers in Tillamook county were 

Page one 


entirely exterminated by the payment of bounties, the bounty 
method would be considered a success. Within another year or 
two, moles and gophers will again be as abundant as they were 
when the bounty law was passed. Tillamook county must con- 
tinue to pay for moles and gophers each year or the investment 

Third, a mole and gopher bounty is an unjust expenditure 
of public money, because it is only a temporary benefit to a few 
farmers and not a real help to a large number of taxpaj^ers. 


During the past summer a section foreman on the Southern 
Pacific Railroad near Gaston called attention to the nest of a 
Chinese pheasant containing twelve eggs which had been de- 
stroyed by burning the grass along the right-of-way. He said he 
found several nests each season which were destroyed because 
the birds nest within the right-of-way along the railroad and were 
not discovered until after the grass was burned. 

Each spring a large number of nests of game birds are dis- 
turbed either by the plowing of land or the cutting of grain. In 
some places, irrigation destroys many nests. We often hear of 
hen pheasants sitting so close to the nests that they are injured 
or killed when the hay is cut. 

On account of the many accidents during the nesting season 
and with the many enemies which young birds have, such as 
hawks, cats and other creatures, it is surprising that our game 
birds hold their own as well as they do. 

Value of the Game Refuge. 

Small and large areas of land in various parts of the state 
that have been set aside as game refuges where no hunting is 
allowed are very important factors in game bird protection. In 
many of the eastern states where hunters are abundant and wild 
land is somewhat scarce, the sportsmen have made an especial 
effort to have certain areas of land set aside as game refuges. 
We are printing in this issue an account of some of the large game 
refuges established in Louisiana. Eight thousand acres of moun- 
tain land bordering the Delaware river and owned by C. C. 
Worthington have been offered to the state of New Jersej- to 

Pag-e two 


form a wild life refuge. A large part of the hunters' license 
fund in Pennsylvania is to be used in purchasing certain sections 
of wild land for game refuges. The Public Domain Commission 
of Michigan is planning to set aside two hundred thousand acres 
of wild land for game refuges. The State Fish and Game Com- 
mission of Illinois has proposed to purchase the Forest of Arden, 
a $250,000 estate, and make it a game refuge. 

The state of Oregon has a greater number of game refuges 
and a greater amount of land set aside for the protection of game 
than any state in the Union. Some complaint has been made on 
account of the number of game refuges in this state. The prob- 
lem of keeping game abundant in the advance of civilization is 
one that is not easy to solve. In protecting our upland game 
birds, it is very important that we have certain sections in dif- 
ferent parts of each county where birds may live and breed 

The prohibition of hunting on a game refuge is not the main 
factor in bringing about an increase of game. It is more impor- 
tant to keep in check the predatory birds and animals which not 
only hunt for the nests and eggs, but are continually lying in wait 
day and night to catch and devour every species of game bird. 
In addition to enforcing the game laws on game refuges and 
other places, some of the deputy wardens are rendering splendid 
protection to game in reducing the number of predatory birds 
and animals in their districts. 

Weasel in Transition Pelage. 

See Page 9. Page three 



The Best Method of Dealing with the Most Wary and Destruct. 
ive of Our Predatory Animals 

Deputy Game Warden, Estacada, Oregon 

In trapping wolves there are two methods in general use : 
(1) Trapping with bait; (2) trail trapping, with "blind sets" in 
trails and runways where wolves are in the habit of going. To 
be successful in trapping these animals one should be skilled in 
both methods and have a thorough knowledge of the habits of 
wolves. The greatest source of failure with the average trapper 
is that he has only a superficial knowledge of both the methods 
of trapping and of the habits of the animals. He fails to appre- 
ciate and take into account the wonderfully acute sense of smell 
and sight that wolves possess, and of their cunning and suspicious 
natures. A wolf is quick to notice any unnatural object, or any 
disturbance of the natural order of things. They seem to under- 
stand fully that man is their deadly enemy, and their keen senses 
are always on guard against his approach or against any contriv- 
ance he may set for their harm. 

Bait Trapping. 

Trapping with bait appeals to the unskilled in such work. 
But it requires more than setting traps around bait of any kind, 
or around a carcass that may be found in a suitable place. 
Wolves have the greatest suspicion of any meat found in the 
woods, or of a carcass of any kind not of their own killing. And 
anyone setting traps at such bait expecting wolves that come 
around to blindly step into them Avill have plenty of time to 
revise his ideas before he gets one. Ordinarily their suspicion 
is aroused the first sight they get of bait in any form, and their 
keen sense of smell is brought into play to locate anything of a 
harmful nature that may be around. Even if a wolf is driven 
by extreme hunger to eat bait where there are traps set, it will 

Page four 


first locate the traps and avoid them as carefully as if they were 
exposed to view, regardless of how skillfully they are covered. 
Trappers often express surprise at a wolf being able to do that 
after they have taken the precaution to remove all scent of the 
hands from the traps and even from the ground around them by 
burning straw or litter over the ground after the traps are set. 
But they fail to understand that the smell of steel is quite per- 
ceptible to a wolf if it gets an idea there is a trap around and 
undertakes to locate it. Once their suspicion is aroused, no amount 
of work put on the sets to kill the scent will prevent them locating 
the traps. 

Taking these facts into consideration, a trapper will soon 
find that he has to resort to tricks that the wolf has not learned. 
In dealing with these animals it has been found that if they start 
eating a carcass unsuspiciously they are bolder on following 
trips and do not take the same precaution to guard against traps. 
Learning this trait has led good trappers to first put their bait 
in place and let the wolves begin using, it, then set the traps. 
When this method is skilfully carried out it is usually successful. 

One of the best baits for such a plan is a carcass of an old 
horse or cow — something they cannot drag off or consume in one 
or two trips. As long as there is any meat left they will usually 
go back to it when they get hungry. But in making such sets 
every precaution must be taken not to disturb anything or leave 
any object that was not there before. For that reason it is best 
to bury the toggle as well as cover the trap and chain. 

As to the best place to locate traps around a carcass, that 
can be determined by where wolves have tramped around 
and the lay of the ground, and of natural objects that may guide 
them over certain routes. Any little trail leading in where an 
animal has to step over something is usually a good place. In 
stepping over such an obstacle where a route has been established, 
they will ordinarily step in the same place every time. ^ trapper 
with much experience always has an eye out for a naturally 
adapted place to locate a trap and uses only such locations. Any 
artificially placed objects to guide wolves over a certain course 
must be very naturalistic and rot overdone. Where a large car- 

Pag-e five 


cass is used for bait several traps should be set, but not in a 

Another method that has proved successful in trapping 
wolves is to fasten a large piece of meat to a stiff swinging limb 
of a tree and high enough that they will have, to jump to reach 
it. If the meat is fastened securely enough to prevent pulling 
it down they will often make several trips to get it. But, as with 
the other method, if wolves are not given a chance to work it 
before any traps are set, the method is very apt to be a failure. 
Two timber wolves were caught in one locality during the past 
winter by this method when nearly every other method failed. 

As to the best kinds of meat to use for bait, almost any kind 
of a wild or domestic animal will do, although the kind that 
wolves have been using most is best. Salmon makes good bait 
for trapping almost any kind of an animal. A good scent for 
trapping can be made by putting fish in a glass jar and leaving 
them exposed to the sun for several weeks till they decompose, 
then using the oil from it. Dragging meat or fresh hides over 
trails in the locality where traps are set, or using scent prepared 
for wolves, help to attract them, and the more they run over the 
territory the better chance there is of catching some of them. 

Naturally, the best time to use bait for trapping is during 
hard winters with deep snow, when game is scarce and hard 
to get. 

Trail Trapping. 

Wolves make more use of trails that happen to be in their 
locality than any other large wild animal in the woods. They 
show their dog-like habits to a marked degree. This makes 
trapping in trails where wolves are in the habit of running one 
of the best methods. Old mountain trails that have not been 
improved much are the best ; they contain many rough places 
where good sets can be made. 

As in trapping with bait, the greatest difficulty is to prevent 
a wolf from smelling the trap in time to avoid it. For that reason 
it has been found almost necessary to make sets in places where 
they have to step over something or make a jump down. Even 
then, if every precaution is not taken, they will smell the trap in 

Page six 


time to miss it. Roots of trees running across trails are often 
good places, as they are partly in the ground and have an estab- 
lished place on one side or the other where most all animals step. 
Trees or logs of any kind across a stream near deer runways are 
good places to set traps. A wolf will not swim a stream if there 
is a log it can cross on ; and on one end or the other there is a 
spot where such animals usually jump on leaving the log. To 
locate these spots is important, and can often be determined by 
the lay of the ground or by old tracks. At crossings of that kind 
is also a good place to set traps for cougar and bobcats. 

The best time for trail trapping is during the running or 
mating season, which ordinarily is between the latter part of 
January to the first part of March. However, all the winter and 
spring months are good, when there are few people in the 

Making the Sets. 

The skill with which a trapper is able to select locations and 
make his sets will determine to a great extent his success in 
trapping wolves. The important things after locating a trap 
where it is most likely to catch something, is to leave no scent of 
the hands on it, and see that it is covered sufficiently, both trap 
and chain. A layer of earth over both is almost necessary in 
order to deaden the scent of the steel. On top of that, such litter 
as is common to the locality should be scattered over the spot to 
make it look natural. Care should be taken not to get any coarse 
material over the jaws of the trap that will prevent it from closing 
up if an animal steps into it. A bunch of moss placed under the 
pan will prevent small animals or snow from springing it. 

To take the scent off traps a number of methods are used. 
A very old and common way is to smoke them over a wood fire. 
Some trappers bury them in fresh earth or throw them in running 
water for several days. Others dip them in a solution of lime 
water, or a solution made by boiling fir, cedar, or hemlock boughs 
and such material, to give them a woods-like smell. All new 
traps should have some such treatment to deaden the smell of 
the steel. The toggle should be a movable object that can be 
dragged around to some extent, as fastening to something solid 

Fag-e seven 


gives an animal a chance to jerk out before the jaws become set 
on the foot. 

For footwear, rubber boots or shoes are very much the best, 
as they leave no scent in the tracks. Rubber gloves also, are best, 
but leather coated over with tallow or hard pitch will do. When 
not in use they should be left in the open and only used for 
handling traps. 

Size of Traps to Use. 

The Newhouse Trap Company makes a No. 4 wolf trap; also 
No. 14, which is the same size, but having teeth. Both these traps 
have been condemned by good trappers on account of being too 
small for animals having as large a foot as the wolf or cougar. 


^' . .. 

^w *'< * * * fr'W -> 

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vS&fiffr,* |g§2 


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The remains of a deer after a cougar had finished his meal. Photograph 

taken toy Mr. Will McMahon of Oakridge, who found 

the carcass on Kitson creek. 

Either of these animals can step on the jaws and have enough 
of their foot reach the pan of the trap to spring it. In such 
cases it seldom holds them ; there is just enough of the foot caught 
to allow them to pull out, or pull one or two toes off and get 
away. In one locality during the past winter, out of seven 
catches that were made — five timber wolves and two cougar — 
only three of the animals were held. The other four pulled out; 
two of these being caught only by two toes, which they pulled off. 
The No. 4 ,:L /2 Newhouse trap is nearer the ideal size for these 
animals. It has a much wider spread of jaws and is well made. 

Page eight 


Light, cheap traps that they can get out of are worse than useless ; 
they teach animals to use greater precaution and make them 
harder to catch. 

As previously stated, the important thing in trapping as 
crafty an animal as the wolf is to know their habits and have an 
intimate knowledge of trapping generally. If a trapper knows 
all the conditions, and the habits of animals that he has to meet 
and overcome, he can devise ways and means of outwitting them 
that are best adapted to the conditions under which he is work- 
ing, and to his own particular talents. Methods that would suit 
one locality or one certain trapper may be altogether unsuited 
to another. 


Mr. 0. J. Murie secured some very interesting specimens for 
the state collection last winter while trapping on Davis creek in 
Crook county, which showed some' striking variations in winter 
and summer pelage. 

On March 22, 1914, he trapped a weasel in brown pelage. 
On March 26, he killed a weasel with the coat of fur changing 
from white to brown. There was a brown stripe in the middle 
of the back with white on each side; the face was partly white 
and partly brown, giving the animal a rather strange appearance. 
On April 7, he trapped a third weasel in the pure white winter 

The brown pelage in March in this locality is rather the 
reverse from what one might expect to find. The question arises 
as to whether certain weasels of the Cascade mountains remain 
in the summer pelage during the entire winter or not, and 
whether others change from brown of summer to pure white 
of winter. 

It is interesting to note that the weasel in the Willamette 
valley does not change from brown to white in winter, but re- 
mains brown the entire year. It is likely that the change of coat 
takes place according to the altitude, and whereas those animals 
in the valley do not change at all, those living in the highest 
Cascades change from brown to white, although for some reason, 

Page nine 


which we do not know at present, some of the weasels, even in 
the high Cascades, do not change to the white coat in winter. 

A number of skins of the snowshoe rabbit were collected in 
this locality. They were numerous in the thickets near the mouth 
of Davis creek. Between March 13 and April 13, 1914, a series 
of fourteen of these were collected, all from the same thicket of 
lodgepole pine on the homestead of George Graft, about forty-four 
hundred feet altitude. Four were in the white pelage, with a 
few small patches of new brown fur. The rest were in the brown 
pelage and were changing their coat, also, new brown fur grow- 
ing in in small patches. The brown rabbits were by far more 
numerous, judging from the number that were caught. 

On April 11, when a white and a brown rabbit were caught, 
the snow was practically all gone, a few patches remaining in 
the thickets. In this case it may be that the specimens which 
were brown in winter and changed from the old brown to the 
new brown pelage were likely younger animals, while those that 
changed from brown in summer to the pure white in winter may 
have been older animals, or vice versa. 

It is the same with the snowshoe rabbit as with the weasel. 
The snowshoe rabbit in the Coast mountains or lower altitudes 
does not change from brown to white in winter, but remains 
brown the entire year. 


In the September-October, 1914, number of Bird-Lore, which 
is the official organ of the National Association of Audubon 
Societies, is an interesting article entitled "Birds and the Army- 
worm. ' ' 

In Oregon, the horticultural and forestry interests are so 
great that we feel every effort should be made toward educating 
people to guard this wealth against the depredation of enemies. 
Some day this state will have to wrestle to a far greater extent 
with the advancing insect pests. For this reason, we are printing 
the article mentioned above. It shows the economic value of 
bird life in relation to insects. 

"The past summer has witnessed an unusual invasion of the 

Page ten 


eastern states by the army-worm. In many sections its raids on 
vegetation have occasioned much concern and actual loss. How 
to meet its advances and check its onslaught has claimed the 
attention of many gardeners and farmers, and by the advice of 
entomologists poison has been resorted to. Testimony received 
at this office from several places tends to show that there is 
grave doubt as to whether this is the wisest course to pursue in 
dealing with the army-worm scourge. Frederic L. Thompson, 


1. Caterpillar; 2. Chrysalis; 3. Adult Moth (Leucania unipunctata) 

an artist, writing from Chilmark, on the island of Martha's Vine- 
yard, Massachusetts, says: 

11 'There has been an invasion of the army-worm here, and I 
notice the Government issues pamphlets on the subject of its 
destruction ; among other things it advises the use of bran mixed 
with paris green. This mixture kills thousands of song-birds, as 
I have found here. As this is being done all over the country, 

Pag-e eleven 


the loss of song-birds must be great. I also noticed Chewinks 
and Catbirds eating the worms, and I think this fact should be 
brought to the attention of farmers.' 

"The observations of Edward A. Gill Wylie, a lawyer at 
No. 149 Broadway, New York, are well worthy of careful reading. 
He writes : ' The present plague of army-worms, which this sum- 
mer was so prevalent in New Jersey, New York, and New England 
states, provides a severe example to us of one of the many rea- 
sons why the number of insectivorous birds should not only be 
conserved but materially increased. A horde of these pests sud- 
denly came to light on a small place about four acres large, within 
one hundred yards of where I am this summer living, on the 
Rumson Road, New Jersey. Immediately after the birds of the 
neighborhood deserted their usual haunts and assembled on these 
four acres. I personally counted sixty-three Robins, Thrushes, 
Catbirds, and Meadowlarks at one time on a little square of lawn 
about 120 by 60 feet, and feel confident that, as this was at high 
noon, it was not their busy time of day. I was informed by the 
gardener that they ate so many that often a bird would disgorge 
and proceed to make a fresh start, and that at least one-half of 
the worms were consumed by them in the two days which elapsed 
before the spraying by experts commenced to destroy what was 
left — and their number was legion. Incidentally, this spraying 
of four acres costs the owner of the property $60 a day. 

" 'Under the eaves of my porch is a little family of House 
Wrens, the four younger members of which were hatched about 
two days before the army-worms appeared. Several times during 
the course of the plague I counted twelve trips in ten minutes 
to the nest of the parent-birds, with food, always army-worms. 
How the young ones could stand the quantity they ate was a 
marvel. The old ones would fly direct to the source of supply, 
and would return almost immediately with a whole worm, stop 
under a near-by hedge, chop off from the whole a suitable morsel 
of swallowable size for the little ones, fly up to the nest, and then 
away for a fresh one; never returning to get the remainder of 
the old worm, but seemingly preferring a fresh one. Their diet 
consisted, so far as I could ascertain, of the army-worm, until the 

Pag-e twelve 


final destruction of the army was accomplished by man and his 
feathered friends. Even moths were ignored, and several fat 
little spiders built a web within ten inches of the nest and were 
entirely undisturbed.' " 

Testimony of Mr. Forbush. 

' ' Edward Howe Forbush, the foremost economic ornithologist 
of New England, reports, under date of August 10, 1914 : 

" 'I have been looking over the destructive work of the army- 
worm in this state. While the worms have been quite destructive 
in Wareham, Massachusetts, they have done no harm at all on 
my farm. In fact, you would never know from the appearance 
of vegetation that there was a worm on the place. I have taken 
extra pains this year to attract the birds, and they have eaten 
a great many of the worms. Thirty or forty rods away from my 
place the worms are beginning to be destructive, and in other parts 
of the town they have done a good deal of harm. They have done 
no appreciable injury on other farms where I have put up nest- 
ing-boxes in quantities. In Martha's Vineyard, the army-worms 
have cut corn-crops to the ground. It is rather significant that 
the worms have done the most harm where poisons have been 
used to check them. Where no poison has been used, and where 
the birds have been attracted, the worms (although very numer- 
ous) have not done very much harm. 

" 'On the state reservation, where the Heath Hen has been 
protected, and where a great many nesting-boxes were put up this 
year, birds were very plentiful, as the boxes were nearly all occu- 
pied, and they were feeding on the army-worm in large numbers. 
Recently I saw here quite a number of Heath Hens apparently 
feeding on the army-worm. Where poisoned bran was used in 
trenches to kill the worms on a large estate formerly owned by 
Professor Shaler, very few birds were seen, and we had several 
reports that dead birds had been found along the trenches, but I 
got there about a week too late and did not see any personally. 
I hear that a good many Blackbirds and Robins have been pois- 
oned, and that Quail have disappeared where the poison has been 
used.' " 

' ' In another letter Mr. Forbush adds : ' I am under the im- 

Page thirteen 


pression that if fresh grass were sprayed at night for the worms, 
it would be just as effective as the bran, and there would not be 
so much risk of the poisoning of birds. Some of the entomologists 
recommend this.' " 

The Oregon Sportsman has secured copies of a very inter- 
esting bulletin from the National Association of Audubon Socie- 
ties entitled "Attracting Birds About the Home," a copy of 
which will be sent without charge to any subscriber on receipt 
of two cents to cover cost of mailing. 


Mr. George Russell of Gaston reports that on September 8 
he saw a brood of twelve young Hungarian partridges which were 
about two-thirds grown. He has also seen a number of coveys of 
California or valley quail ranging from fifteen to eighteen in that 
locality. Some of the California quail which were liberated near 
Gaston in December, 1913, and February, 1914, have been seen in 
Patton valley four or five miles from Gaston. 

Mr. 0. B. Parker reports that on September 11, 1914, he 
counted a covey of sixteen young Hungarian partridges on the 
Alderman game refuge at Dayton. He saw a second covey and 
counted eight or nine birds which were perhaps two-thirds 

The California quail liberated on the Alderman refuge have 
greatly increased in number. Several flocks of these birds may 
be seen any day in a tramp about the farm. 

Twelve pairs of Hungarian partridges were liberated near 
McMinnville in March, 1914. Mr. Parker has seen three coveys 
of these birds on David Stout's farm. Twelve pairs of these birds 
were also liberated on Mr. Haine's place at Carlton. On this and 
the adjoining place, belonging to Mr. J. H. Cunningham, seven 
or eight coveys of partridges have been seen. 

Three flocks of California quail have been seen within the 
city limits of McMinnville. These are probably birds that were 
liberated on P. P. Wright's orchard tract. 

Pag 1 © fourteen 



By R. Bruce Horsfall. 

Early last July while in the high Cascades near and just 
below the snow line on Middle Sister mountain, Mr. Vernon 
Bailey and the writer were standing one morning looking out 
over a beautiful little lake. Not a fish stirred its emerald 
depths ; not a ripple on its well protected surface except where 
a lone female golden-eye duck swam enquiringly toward us. A 
water ouzel dipped his dainty way along the shore. Insect larvae 
and one species of tiny clam were the only life in its waters. Be- 
fore us many deer tracks crossed and recrossed through this, the 
shallow end of the lake. At our feet sang the brook that here 
found its way down from the snows above ; its waters blocked, a 
few hundred yards below, by a lava flow, was the direct means of 
forming this lovely retreat. 

Suddenly at our feet scampered a little dark gray creature 
disappearing beneath a rotten log. Mr. Bailey at once knew it 
to be the small water shrew he had been so anxious 10 find in 
this region and so we set about catching it. While I pulled away 
the old log Mr. Bailey did some lively grabbing, at last rising 
up triumphant with the fierce little creature clinging to his 
finger, biting with all the powers of his short, sharp teeth. To 
be sure these are tiny and shaped like so many sharp-pointed 
grinders, therefore could not inflict more pain to a man than so 
many pin pricks, but a change of hold to the nape of the neck 
was quickly made. We tied a string to one hind leg and tossed 
him into the water to see why he had been named water shrew. 
Fluffing himself into a ball he sat on the surface as light as 
thistle down and endeavored to chew off the cord ; failing in that, 
he lowered his fur and, about one-third submerged, quickly 
swam to shore. Wishing to see him dive, he was again tossed 
out, and threatened with a stick. He dove at once and with 
perfect ease reached a log several feet away. A beautiful sight 
it was to see this little swimmer, several inches below the surface 
of the clear water, covered, as with a coat of shimmering silver, 
the effect 1 of the air carried down on his fluffed-out fur. 

Pag-e fifteen 


Moles and shrews are often accused of being agents of de- 
struction about gardens. That moles are justly accused there 
can be no question, though it is not through the eating of the 
vegetation, for they are not vegetarians; but rather because in 
burrowing about for worms and insects they make tunnels and 
through these tunnels the field mice can go and eat to their 
hearts' content in perfect safety from all enemies. Did I say 
all? Well, that's not quite true, for their greatest enemy is the 
shrew, a little creature which has an enormous appetite for mice, 
in addition to its regular fare of insects. This includes such pests 
as grasshoppers, crickets, slugs, June bugs, locust larvae and 
earthworms, but always the favorite is mice, dead or alive. 

The recognition marks of the shrew are the pointed snout, no 
visible external ears and eyes very small. Indeed it depends on 
its highly specialized senses of touch, hearing and smell for guid-* 
ance in probing about and searching for food, and eats from 
twice to three times its own weight every twenty-four hours. 

There are several species in Oregon, and though they may 
Eot all catch and eat full-grown mice, they all eat insects and it 
is quite beyond one's imagination to think of the myriads one 
shrew must destroy in a year. 

Prof. Cope writes of a Carolina shrew overcoming a water 
snake two feet in length, which shows the courage and fighting 
qualities of this little creature. Cats will not eat them, though 
they will catch them in mistake for mice. 

This little mouse-like animal (I say mouse-like for it is, 
after all, but a superficial resemblance, a true mouse having the 
long front knawing teeth of the rodent) has been known to kill 
and eat even the large meadow mouse of twice his own weight. 

Shull, estimating four short-tailed shrews to the acre, fig- 
ured that on a farm of one hundred acres, they would, in a year, 
devour 38,400 mice. "When we think of the vast amount of dam- 
age of which these rodents are capable we must admit the great 
benefit shrews are to man and give them all the protection in 
our power. 

Page sixteen 



(Recreation, November, 1914.) 

For the purpose of establishing another wild fowl refuge 
on the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico, in line with the 
campaign first advocated in this magazine, the Rockefeller 
Foundation has purchased the Grand Chenier tract containing 
85,000 acres in the parishes of Cameron and Vermillion, La., at a 
cost of approximately $225,000. An announcement to this effect 
was made by the secretary of the Foundation October 4, upon 
the execution of a deed from the Rockefeller Foundation placing 
the land for an initial term of five years under the protection of 
the Louisiana Conservation Commission. The commission, on its 
side, has formally accepted the tract and has undertaken to pro- 
tect it by game wardens. 

This purchase, the arrangements for which have consumed 
more than a year and a half, is another step in the program to 
establish throughout the winter feeding and resting grounds for 
birds, and along their migration routes, suitable refuges where 
they can be protected at all times of the year and be safe from 
persecution. It is due to the intelligent and public-spirited activ- 
ity of Mr. E. A. Mcllhenny of Avery Island, La., who brought 
the matter to the attention of the Rockefeller Foundation through 
Mr. Starr J. Murphy, one of its trustees. 

The Grand Chenier tract is full of shallow ponds, lakes and 
bayous, abounding in cover for the protection of birds against 
storms. It produces an enormous quantity of natural food, suf- 
ficient to provide for the vast number of birds from the north 
which winter along the Gulf coast. 

The great tract purchased by the Rockefeller Foundation is 
an integral part of the "wild life refuge system" which this 
magazine was the pioneer in advocating and has consistently 
supported. It is only a few miles from Marsh Island, purchased, 
upon the recommendation of. Mr. Mcllhenny, in 1912, by Mrs. 
Russell Sage for a bird refuge, at a cost of about $150,000. 

The Grand Chenier tract and Marsh Island are a part of a 
refuge of 500 square miles with a frontage of 75 miles on the Gulf 
coast, which it is proposed to acquire. Included in this vast tract 

Pag"e seventeen 


is the state wild life refuge of 13,000 acres donated to Louisiana 
by Mr. Mcllhenny and Charles Willis Ward, and the Ward- 
Mcllhenny refuge of some 60,000 acres. 

The purchase by the Rockefeller Foundation constitutes the 
greatest gift ever made to the preservation of bird life in 
America, with the exception of the bequest of David Wilcox to 
the National Association of Audubon Societies. This bequest 
amounted to $332,000. Bird lovers believe it will mark one of 
the most important steps ever taken for the preservation of 
migratory fowl, because they expect it to stimulate interest in 
establishing refuges in other sections of the United States and 

The wild fowl refuge on the Gulf shore of Louisiana affords 
winter shelter for myriads of migratory songbirds, woodpeckers, 
and shore birds, all of which are of great service in the north 
when insects are busy in field, orchard and garden. 

For half a century countless thousands of ducks and geese 
have been shot there for the markets of New Orleans, St. Louis. 
Cincinnati and Chicago. The species most commonly taken were 
mallards, black-duck, teal and canvasback. 


One of the best ways to get an idea of the game conditions 
in a specific locality is to make a census of the wild birds and 
animals in that region. This was done last winter in the country 
around Ashland by Mr. George Hargadine. His report in part 
is as follows : 

"The valley west of Ashland, which is about five miles by 
three in size, contains approximately fifty-seven coveys of Cali- 
fornia or valley quail, ranging from ten to one hundred birds to 
the covey. These large numbers are caused by feed yards along 
the river which attract and keep the birds here. I estimated the 
number of birds in this region to be as follows : quail seven hun- 
dred, Chinese pheasants one hundred, ducks twenty-five. There 
are a very few coyotes and skunks) and numerous house cats. 

In the opposite direction are rolling hills. Here I found 
thirty-five coveys of California quail — some three hundred in all 

Fag-e eighteen 


— and farther out the mountain quail commenced to appear. I 
found some twenty pheasants, many coyotes and a few bobcats 
and skunks. 

To the east in the valley again I found about forty coveys 
of quail, perhaps over five hundred in number, and sixty pheas- 
ants and no ducks. Such animals as bobcats, coyotes, skunks 
and house cats are plentiful. In this region, one man caught 
thirty skunks in six days and another caught fifteen skunks and 
eight coyotes. I caught eighty-seven skunks here in the month 
of November. 

To the south the mountains come down close, leaving a long, 
narrow space for valley quail ; here I found about three hundred 
and fifty of these birds. 

In this space of ten miles long by three wide there are about 
two thousand valley quail, two hundred Chinese pheasants and 
a few of their natural enemies. I am satisfied the pheasants 
will never increase where there are many coyotes, as they roost 
on the ground and are caught at night. 

All around this boundary, except on the west, mountain 
quail are plentiful, also grouse and a goodly number of deer. 
The best locality for valley quail is about twenty miles west of 
Ashland near Central Point. I saw one band of wild pigeons 
in January that were on their southern flight and only staid a 
few days. 

In regard to large game in a radius of thirty miles, including 
the two main wintering grounds, there are probably fifteen hun- 
dred deer. An occasional gray wolf or a panther does some 


Mr. Luther J. Goldman of the U. S. Biological Survey spent 
several weeks in the Yamsey mountains during August and Sep- 
tember, collecting specimens of birds and mammals for the Gov- 
ernment collections. He reports seeing many bear tracks and 
one bear was caught in a trap baited with crawfish, but the trap 
was too small to hold him. He also saw many coyotes and killed 

Pag-e nineteen 



The open season on trout over six inches in length closed 
October 31. From October 31 to March 31 of next year, it is 
unlawful to catch or have trout in possession under ten inches 
in length. 

Those anglers who fish during the winter months are likely 
to hook many undersized fish. Care should be taken in removing 
them from the hook and placing them in the water. One should 
moisten the hand before taking hold of a live fish. If this is 
not done, the dry hand often injures the fish and this causes a 
growth of fungus or some similar disease. 


Deputy Game Wardens Russell and Parker report that on 
August 30, 1914, they saw young Chinese pheasants between Hal- 
sey and Tangent which were so young that they could not fly. 
They thought the chicks were about three days old. 

On August 31, five miles southwest of Albany, they saw an- 
other brood of young pheasants that were but a few days old. 

Mr. Russell reports that on September 11, at Dilley he saw 
a bobwhite quail with six or eight chicks which were but two or 
three days old. 


W. F. Baldwin of Oroville, California, caught a rainbow trout 
in Williamson river August 14 that weighed twenty-two pounds. 
J. J. Furber of Klamath Falls measured the fish and found it 
was two feet eight inches long and twenty and a half inches 
around the body. It was caught with a No. 3 copper spoon and 
with a six-ounce bamboo rod and light line. 


On October 14, Deputy Game Warden J. J. Furber, Fritz 
Mischnick and W. L. Frain while hunting in the vicinity of Fox 
lake, Klamath county, saw six buck deer : Furber shot a fork- 
horn and a three-pointer while Frain succeeded in killing a four- 

Page twenty 

A Menace-- 

the Irresponsible Hunter 

Where will you hunt when every farm in the 
state is posted with "No Hunting" signs? 

In many localities a bitter feeling has developed 
against sportsmen because of the actions of careless 
and irresponsible hunters, who noti only trespass 
contrary to law, but shoot recklessly, injuring do- 
mestic animals and sometimes hitting people. 

Each year an increasing number of people take 
out hunting licenses to shoot Chinese pheasants and 
other game birds. No hunter has the right to tres- 
pass on land if it is enclosed or occupied without 
first obtaining permission from the owner. 

A true sportsman will not only obey the laws 
himself, but will use his influence to get others to do 
the same. 

Check the Irresponsible Hunter, 
He is a Nuisance and a Menace 


MAR 24 1917 






Hutchins Goose. Similar to the Canada Goose but Smaller. 



By WILLIAM L. FINLEY, Editor, Portland, Oregon 

Volume II 

5c a copy — 50c a year 

Number 12 




Copyright 1914, by William L. Finley 


Importation of New Species 1 

California Fish and Game 2 

Cougar Bounties in California 3 

Eastern Brook Trout in Linn County 4 

Game Notes from Western Lane County 4 

The Economic Value of Wild Birds 5 

Oregon Sportsmen 's League S 

County Associations Meet 10 

Sportsmen Meet at La Grande 11 

Elk in Lane County 11 

Value of Game to the State 12 

Southeastern Oregon Notes 15 

Game Conditions on the Upper Clackamas 16 

Deer Slayers Brought to Justice 16 

Wild Geese and Grain Crops 17 

Protect the Does 21 

The Oregon Sportsman 

Volume II DECEMBER, 1914 Number 12 


We often hear the suggestion that our fields and woods 
should be stocked with other species of birds and animals that 
are not found here, and that our streams should be stocked with 
species of fish from other states. Sometimes an easterner who 
has fished for pickerel or bass in his youthful days has remem- 
brances and associations that lead him to believe that angling for 
these fish can hardly be equaled by catching a rainbow or 
chinook. There can be no comparison in the fish, however. 

Inasmuch as our streams are capable of furnishing food for 
a certain number of fish and since it takes no more effort to keep 
a stream stocked with first-class fish than with a poorer grade, 
we should see to it that only the best are propagated and pro- 

As a general rule, we are emphatically opposed to the intro- 
duction of species other than the native birds, animals and fish 
in our state. Experiments of this kind have often been unsuc- 
cessful or have proved disastrous. The introduction of the 
English sparrow into America, of the rabbit into Australia and 
the mongoose into Jamaica are notable examples where species 
have been successfully acclimatized. In the change of environ- 
ment, habits of creatures also change. In the above cases, these 
creatures have become so abundant as to be pests and are dis- 
astrous to native species. 

On the other hand, there have been some very successful 
experiments in Oregon as far as game birds are concerned. The 
Chinese, ring-necked or Denny pheasant became so readily ac- 
elimatized and the birds increased in numbers so rapidly that it 
is the most successful example in America today of an introduced 
game bird. 

The Decrease of Grouse and Quail. 
We have sometimes heard the complaint that the Chinese 
pheasant interferes with and drives out native birds. As far as 

Pag-e one 


our investigation goes, this is not true. During the past two 
years, some of the sportsmen of eastern Washington and Idaho 
have raised the cry that this pheasant interferes with the increase 
of bobwhite quail. This is not true in Oregon, for in the Wil- 
lamette valley, where Chinese pheasants are most abundant, the 
bobwhite quail are increasing steadily year by year. 

To be sure, some of our native species, such as mountain quail 
and the sooty or blue grouse, have decreased in numbers in the 
Willamette valley. Some one will raise the cry that this is due 
to the Chinese pheasant. The truth is that these are two species 
that do not hold their own as well in the advance of civilization 
as the Chinese pheasant, ruffed grouse, bobwhite quail and Cali- 
fornia or valley quail. The mountain quail and blue grouse do 
not adapt themselves to the gradual change of conditions brought 
about by the settlement of the country. As the natural shelter 
and breeding places of these birds disappear, they lose out. They 
are not quite as well prepared to hold their own with house cats 
and other destructive animals that increase about the farm and 
prey continually on game. 


The above is the title of a quarterly publication which has 
just been started by the California Fish and Game Commission. 
This part of the educational work in California is carried on by 
Dr. Harold C. Bryant, Assistant Curator of Birds in the Museum 
of Vertebrate Zoology in the University of California. Dr. Bryant 
is well equipped for his new duties, for not only has he had a 
long university training, but he has spent several years in research 
work on the game birds of the state and through extensive travel- 
ing is well acquainted with conditions throughout California. 

The function of this department in California will be to find 
ways and means of protecting foreign and domestic game birds 
within the state and to dispense information relative to game by 
means of correspondence, public illustrated lectures, and by the 
issuance of bulletins dealing with the status of fish and game. 
A study will also be made of the habitats, habits and breeding 

Pag-e two 


seasons of the different game birds and mammals of the state so 
that a basis for sane game laws may be secured. 

Among the other good things in this issue of California 
Fish and Game, Dr. Bryant starts his first editorial with the right 
ring, namely, that education is the effective method toward bet- 
ter game protection. 

"There are two ways of enforcing laws — one is to punish 
violators, and the other is to educate people to a realization of 
the need and value of the law so that public sentiment demands 
its observance. The former method was used in the time of Nero 
and still needs to be used for the laggers of civilization. The 
relative value of the 'rule with an iron hand' and the 'rule with 
reason' has been too often discussed to use space for it here. The 
thing to be noted is that the California Fish and Game Commission 
is beginning a campaign of education in an endeavor to so edu- 
cate public opinion that protective laws may in the future become 
relatively unimportant. Most of the violators of the game laws 
if brought to a real appreciation of the law itself and the need 
for it. would obey rather than disobey the law." 


Several interesting facts are contained in the report of the 
California Fish and Game Commission with reference to the 
bounties paid by the commission on mountain lions or cougars 
from October. 1907, to June 30, 1914. In the first place, it shows 
t'ne number of these predatory animals is constantly decreasing 
under the war of extermination being waged against them. In 
ihe second place it shows the two counties in the state having 
more of these animals than any others are Humboldt and Trinity. 
two counties very close to the Oregon line. This calls attention 
to the necessity of the continued co-operation on the part of the 
Oregon commission with that of California in the effort to exter- 
minate the cougar. 

The figures given in the report are for 48 counties. In each 
of six of these, but one animal has been killed during the entire 
period. In the other counties the number ranges from three to 
418. Tn nearly every county thorc has been a decrease from year 

Page three 


to year and in every county with any considerable number of 
these animals the decrease has been particularly marked. The 
records for two counties will be sufficient to show the decrease : 
1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 Total 
Humboldt 10 113 67 71 42 50 41 24 418 
Trinity 9 86 34 32 22 15 14 10 222 

The, bounty paid in California is $20.00 per animal. 


Dr. A. G. Prill of Scio has given a very interesting report in 
regard to the eastern brook trout which were planted in Prill 
lake in 1912. This lake is not far from Marion lake and is some 
twenty or thirty acres in extent. In 1913 Dr. Prill visited the lake 
and found the fish were from six to eight inches in length. During 
last summer Dr. Prill again visited the lake in company with 
Dr. W. H. Dale of Harrisburg, C. W. Warner, J. F. Wesley and 
John Frost of Scio. The party found that trout were very abund- 
ant in the lake. During the afternoon and evening, when flies 
were quite plentiful, the fish were continually jumping. They 
rose very eagerly for an artificial fly and the party caught twelve 
eastern brook trout in a very short time, none of which was under 
twelve inches or over fifteen inches in length. They thought best 
not to catch any more than this number, but to leave a good 
supply for spawning purposes until the lake was well stocked. 


Deputy Game Warden Dowell of Mercer sends us the fol- 
lowing notes from western Lane county: 

Canvasback ducks are very numerous on Tsiltcoos lake, 
south of Florence. Mallards began to arrive on November 1. 

During the month of October nine bears were killed in the 
vicinity of Mercer. The record of the lucky huntsmen is as 
follows : Jack Bunch, 3 ; Alex Dowell, 2 ; Ancil Stonefield, 1 ; 
Clyde Bay, 1; Otis Cheney, 1; Lawrence Johnson. 1. 

Seth Martin of Mapleton recently caught a large beaver in 
his salmon net in the Siuslaw river. It was drowned when found. 
Beaver are numerous along this section of the river. 

Page four 


The Economic Value of Wild Birds 

Facts that Show the Importance of Nature's Check Upon 

the Insect Pests 

During the past summer in many parts of the state there has 
been an unusual pest of grasshoppers. The farmers in some parts 
of eastern Oregon have complained especially on account of the 
damage done to crops. According to Mr. Lewis Scholl. Jr., 
Justice of the Peace at Echo, Umatilla county, the much-despised 
crows gathered in the alfalfa fields by the hundreds and devoured 
large numbers of grasshoppers. 

It is a most interesting fact that in Klamath, Lake and Har- 
i-ey counties where the California and ring-billed gulls nest in 
jarge colonies, about Klamath, Goose, Warner and Malheur lakes, 
these birds spread out in the fields along the sage-brush plains 
miles away from the water and live almost entirely on grass- 
hoppers. It is rather a strange sight to see these web-footed 
birds hunting a living so far away from the water. 

The Brewer blackbird, which is commonly recognized by the 
whitish eye, is often seen during the latter part of the summer 
feeding upon grasshoppers. After the nesting season, these birds 

Brewer Blackbirds Hunting - Grasshoppers. 

Pag-e five 


gather in flocks and skirmish about wherever grasshoppers seem 
most abundant. Sparrow-hawks, pheasants, quail, meadowlarks 
and many other birds live largely upon grasshoppers and other 
insects when they are abundant and thus assist man in the pro- 
tection of his crops. 

The Chinese or Denny pheasant is the most abundant game 
bird in Oregon. We sometimes hear the complaint from gardener 
or farmer that this bird is damaging crops. It is very true that 
the pheasant eats corn, peas, potatoes and grain, but at the same 
time, he devours many injurious insects. A male pheasant killed 
October 15, 1913, had its crop and gizzard filled with grass- 
hoppers, weevils, soldier bugs and cut-worms. The crop of 
another pheasant contained thirty-four grasshoppers, three crick- 
ets and eleven beetles. 

The Balance of Nature 

In the vegetable and animal world, all living things are bound 
together in many ways. In the struggle for existence, every 
species is related closely to many other species, each acting as a 
force in itself to hold the equilibrium which is called the balance 
of nature. This natural law of our world may well be compared 
with that which keeps our solar system in operation. Each 
species is a powerful force within itself to live and multiply and 
in turn is held within bounds by the forces and actions of every 
other species. There is an intense natural competition to keep 
this balance even. 

The natural checks upon insect life are the wild birds that 
live in our fields and forests. If we were to kill off the birds of 
a certain locality, we should immediately overthrow the balance 
of nature and there would be a corresponding increase of insects. 

Without the wild birds, our forests would be swept as by a 
blast of fire. Our trees would look like an army of telegraph 
posts. The importance of bird life in conserving our forests is: 
well known. Four hundred different species of insects are con- 
tinually working on the oak tree alone. The birds of the forests 
are constantly catching and consuming these insects. On the 

Page six 


willow trees, one hundred and eighty-six different kinds of insects 
are constantly at work; on the pine, one hundred and sixty-five 
species; on the hickory, one hundred and seventy; on the birch, 
one hundred and five; and on the elm, eighty. Careful analysis 
of the stomachs of thousands of woodpeckers, titmice, creepers, 
kinglets, wood warblers, wrens, flycatchers, swallows, nuthatches 
and other birds show r that they do nothing else but eat thess 
devastating insects. This is their life work. Destroy our wild 
birds and you destroy our forests. 

Birds w T ork more in conjunction with man than any other 
form of outdoor life. Nature has given them the special task of 
holding insect life in check in order to protect plant life. Do not 
let any fruit grower think, however, that birds alone will keep his 
orchard free from insect pests; birds will only help in the fight 
in orchards, gardens and forests. 

In a day's time, the bush-tit and chickadee have been known 
to eat hundreds of insect eggs and worms that are harmful to 
our trees and vegetables. A brood of three young chipping spar- 
rows were watched during one day and they were fed a hundred 
and eighty-seven times by the parents. A family of four song 
sparrows, seven days old, were fed seventeen grasshoppers and 
two spiders in sixty-seven minutes. The flycatchers and swallows 
destroy vast numbers of flies and gnats that annoy horses and 
cattle. The food of the flicker or woodpecker consists largely of 
ants which protect the aphides or plant lice which are so destruc- 
tive to gardens and orchards. Three thousand of these ants have 
been taken from the crop of a single bird. The food of the 
meadowlark consists of seventy-five per cent of injurious insects 
and twelve per cent of weed seed, which shows it is a bird of 
great economic value. A single robin has been known to eat a 
hundred and seventy-five caterpillars. One bob-white that was 
killed had over a hundred potato bugs in its craw. Another had 
eaten two spoonfuls of chinch, bugs. After the clay-flying birds 
have ceased their work and gone to sleep, the nighthawk is busy 
catching untold numbers of mosquitoes, moths and other insects. 

W. L. F. 

Page seven 


Oregon Sportsmen's League 

Second Annual Convention, Election of Officers, Results of Trap 

Shooting and Fly Casting Tournament, 

Followed by Banquet. 

The second annual convention of the Oregon Sportsmen's 
League was held in the Commercial Club rooms in Portland, 
December 7. Delegates were in attendance from all points in 
Oregon. Forty-four clubs with an aggregate membership of 
more than 3500 were represented. Eight other clubs asked to be 
admitted to membership in the league. 

Good fellowship with a generous spirit of "give and take" 
prevailed throughout the day. Though the discussions indulged 
in were lively at times* the final vote on all questions, including 
the election of officers and the selection of Portland as the next 
place of meeting was always unanimous. 

H. B. Van Duzer, of Portland, was re-elected president ; W. N. 
Matlock, of Pendleton, and Dr. J. G. Gill, of Lebanon, were 
named as first and second vice-presidents, while S. C. Bartrum, 
of Roseburg, was selected as secretary-treasurer. The following 
are the members of the executive committee : District 1, L. W. 
Humphreys, Portland ; district 2, W. W. Goff , Forest Grove ; 
district 3, A. Crandall, Brownsville ; district 4, George Putnam, 
Medford; district 5, Leo A. E. Schanno, The Dalles; district 6, 
G. I. La Dow, Pendleton ; district 7, Charles Riley, Klamath Falls. 

The chief discussion centered on the deer and Chinese pheas- 
ant laws. More than an hour was spent in discussing the pro- 
visions of one measure which will be presented to the next legis- 
lature. It was finally decided that the new measure should leave 
the bag limit for Chinese pheasants the same as at present, five 
birds in one day or ten in seven consecutive days, but instead of 
limiting the shooting to males only, females to the number of 
two will be allowed in each limit of five. It was also decided 
to request the legislature to cut one month off the opening of 
the deer season, making it open September 1 instead of August 1, 
the closing time, October 31, to be left the same as at present. 

One of the important actions taken by the organization 

Page eight 


was the adoption of an official organ. Former Secretary C. A. 
Riddle was given full authority to issue a publication in the inter- 
est of the league and to mail a copy to each member of every rod 
and gun club in the state. 

The action which brought particular joy to the sportsmen of 
Portland was the unanimous adoption without discussion of the 
proposed closing of the Willamette river to net fishing. 

At 7> o'clock the meeting adjourned to the banquet room of 
the Commercial Club where an elaborate "duck dinner" was 
served in honor of the visiting delegates by the Portland Gun 
Club and the Multnomah Anglers' Club. 

The same good fellowship that prevailed throughout the 
regular business session was in evidence throughout the dinner 
which was enjoyed by more than 300 persons. More than 175 
ducks were eaten by the hungry sportsmen. 

At the conclusion of the dinner a fine series of motion pic- 
tures was presented by Mr. W. L. Finley and formed a most 
enjoyable part of the evening. 

The Portland Ad Club quartet, Dr. R. M. Emerson, N. A. 
Hoose, M. H. Bowman, and H. G. Whip, gave several selections. 
President Van Duzer gave a brief address in which credit for 
the ducks eaten was given to H. W. Metzger, W. E. Carlon, W. B. 
Fecheimer, D. L. Williams, James Honeyman, George Leithoff, 
M. Abrahams, Dr. C. P. Brown, Dr. T. C. Munson, J. E. Cullison, 
Archie Parrott and Thomas Harrill. 

A trap shooting and fly casting tournament was held the day 
preceding the convention, at the grounds of the Portland Gun 
Club at Jenne station. The first event was under the supervision 
of the Portland Gun Club while the latter was under the direction 
of the Multnomah Angler's Club. Nearly 200 sportsmen partici- 
pated in the various events. 

In the shooting contests, Peter O'Brien was high man of 
the day with a percentage of 95. He won two prizes in Class A 
events. E. Young had two wins in the Class B division while 
G. I. La Dow of Pendleton was first in the Class C event. Miss 
Gladys Reid was the winner of the event for women. 

In the casting events Dr. E. C. McFarland broke three club 
records. In the half ounce bait casting he made a single cast of 

Page nine 


188 feet, the old record of 184 feet being held by C. C. Harris. 
The one-quarter ounce bait casting event was won by him with 
an average of 149 feet. The former record was 136 feet. A single 
cast in the same event was for 161 feet, beating the former 
record by 19 feet. 

The following are the results of the fly and bait-casting 
events : 

Distance bait-casting, one-quarter ounce, first. Dr. E. C. 
McFarland ; average 149 ; second, C. C. Harris, average 104.9 ; 
third, L. W. Humphreys, average 90.6. 

Distance bait-casting, one-half ounce, first, C. C. Harris, 150.1 ; 
second, W. C. Block, 135.2; third, A. G. Burghduff, 111.3. 

Accuracy bait-casting, quarter ounce, first, W. C. Block, 
95.15 ; second, L. W. Humphreys, 95.11 ; third, E. C. McFarland, 95. 

Accuracy bait-casting, half ounce, first, C. C. Harris, 97.7; 
second, A. G. Burghduff, 96.13 ; third, L. W. Humphreys, 96.12. 

Dry fly accuracy casting, first, W. F. Backus, 98.7 ; second, 
J. C. Myers, 98.5; third, W. C. Block, 97.8. 

Accuracy fly-casting at 50-55-60 range, first, J. C. Myers, 
98 10-15; second, W. C. Block, 98 8-15; third, W. F. Backus, 
98 1-15. 

Distance fly-casting, light rod, first, J. C. Myers, 74 feet; 
second, W. C. Block and W. F. Backus, tied, 70 feet. 

E. F. A. 


The Lane County Fish and Game Association met in the 
Eugene Commercial Club rooms the evening of December 4 to 
elect delegates to the second annual meeting of the Oregon 
Sportsmen's League. The meeting was open to anyone interested 
in hunting or fishing and proposed changes in the game laws 
were discussed. 

The Douglas County Game Projective Association held its 
annual meeting in Roseburg, November 30. Delegates were chosen 
ot represent the association at the state convention in Portland 
and resolutions were adopted stating that it was the sense of the 
meeting that no material changes in the game code be made by 
the 1915 session of the legislature. 

Pag-e ten 



Delegates from 18 clubs, representing five of the six counties 
included in the sixth district of the Oregon Sportsmen's League, 
met at La Grande December 3. Many questions of interest to the 
sportsmen of this district were discussed, resolutions asking for 
a few changes in the game laws were adopted and arrangements 
were made for making the organization permanent with an annual 
meeting. In the evening the visiting sportsmen and several mem- 
bers of the legislature were the guests of the Wing, Fin and Fleet- 
foot Club at one of the La Grande club's famous "Hassenpfeffer" 
banquets. The counties included in the sixth district are Morrow, 
Umatilla, Union, Wallowa, Baker and Grant. All but Morrow 
were represented at the meeting which was undoubtedly the most 
important gathering of sportsmen ever held in eastern Oregon. 

The proposed opening of the season on female deer and the 
extension of the open season to November 15 were voted down. 

The meeting also went on record as opposing any change in 
the present method of handling the fish and game funds or any 
change in the present state laws affecting migratory birds until 
the constitutionality of the federal law is settled. 

An open season on Chinese pheasants in Union county and 
one in Baker county on prairie chickens was recommended as 
well as a closed season on trout for all of eastern Oregon from 
November 1 to March 31. A closed season on trout in certain 
lakes of Baker and Grant counties during the spawning season 
was also favored. 

The following officers were elected: President. James H. 
Nichols of Baker ; vice-president, P. A. Foley of La Grande ; sec 
retarv. Arthur Wenzel of La Grande. 


Mr. E. C. Hills of Eugene reports that on November 17, 
Mr. Drew Griffin returned from a trip over the rangers' trail 
between McKenzie and Willamette rivers and reports seeing four 
herds of elk numbering 48 in all. The trip was made through 
snow in which tracks of cougar, bear and three wild cats were 

Page eleven 



The American Field published a very interesting article on 
December 5 under the title, "Game Legislation in Missouri." 
The article contained so many good points concerning the value 
of game to any state that the main part of it is here reproduced. 

"It has been conceded that wild game belongs nor, to the 
individual, but to the state. Fish and game come under state 
regulation and protection. Now, we find the federal law reaching 
out to protect migratory wild fowl as they pass from one state to, 
or through, another state from one feeding ground to another. 

"The legislatures of over forty states will meet this winter 
and will consider game legislation. In most of the states an 
attempt will be made to eliminate the differences that exist 
between state and federal regulations. 

"The purpose and intent of all these laws, whether state or 
federal, is to protect the 1 game from the sure extermination that 
otherwise awaits it, by allowing only a limited time each year, 
known as the 'open season,' when shooting or hunting is per- 
mitted, and especially with reference to all fish or game being 
taken or hunted during the spawning or breeding season. 

Public Sentiment. 

"Where public sentiment recognizes the wisdom of the prin- 
ciple of game preservation, the laws are respected, not through 
force or fear, but every one in the community takes special care 
that game is only taken in a lawful manner, and only during the 
open season, and not to exceed the bag limit. The long and un- 
checked wanton destruction of all game in this country, as is 
strikingly exemplified in the total extermination of the wild 
pigeon, and almost total destruction of deer, turkey and prairie 
chickens, has finally brought about the natural reaction that has 
resulted in the present activity in the state and federal measures 
to protect wild game. 

"Where such protection has been given it has been rewarded 
by showing a bountiful increase in game after a few years of 
'closed season.' 

"There is no sport that has as large a following as that of 
hunting and fishing. Thousands may gather to see the home team 

Fag*e twelve 


play a double-header of the national game, a few hundred will go 
to the private clubs and golf links, but let two holidays come 
together and the campers and fishermen will leave the heat of the 
city by train loads, in street cars, automobiles, bicycles or 'foot- 
back,' if no other means of travel is at hand. 

"Camp Fire Girls. 

"Years ago men only followed the hounds; now the fair sex 
is taking to the woods. 

"The automobile takes the whole family fishing, the Camp 
Fire Girls and the Boy Scouts are teaching their parents a few 
tricks about camp life. 

"Each year the women, in increasing number, are seen in 
canoe on our lakes and streams and are not only becoming expert 
with paddle, but are competent to take care of themselves both 
in or on the water. They are expert bait or fly casters, and with 
lightweight guns can bring clown the bird on the wing. 

"The manufacturers are now making fishing tackle, guns 
and camp supplies, clothing, caps and shoes for women, as well 
as for men. 

"The Week-End in the Country. 

"The railroads and steamboat lines run fishermen's specials 
to accommodate the outing parties. 

"Department stores are buying farms and building club 
houses in the country for the benefit of their employes. 

"The farmers are having post cards printed showing shad} 7 
trees along some stream, to entice their city friends to spend their 
vacations in the country. 

"The dinner table is the farmer's 'counter,' over which he 
exchanges for cash roasting ears, potatoes, corn bread and toma- 
toes, fried chicken and fresh eggs, for a better price than he could 
get in trade at the store. 

' ' The farmer has yet to learn .that he should add to his dairy 
herd, as fresh butter, buttermilk or sweetmilk and cream is what 
the city people expect on a trip to the country, and so seldom get. 

1 ' Opportunities on the Farm. 
' ' The farmer is now being assisted by the parcel post ; he not 
only supplies country board during the summer, but takes orders 

Pag*e thirteen 


to ship his poultry and dairy supplies, apples, cider and vinegar, 
walnuts and pecans, that a few years ago found no market. His 
summer boarders tell their friends where to send for these articles ; 
they are all 'boosters' for the farmer, and at no cost to him for 

"A bevy of quail or a stream stocked with fish means cash 
in his pocket for livery hire or board bill during the fall, if he 
will invest in one postal card and send it to the sportsman or 

"Opportunity is knocking at our very door; are we to con- 
tinue to turn a deaf ear? 

"We should wake up to the importance of preserving our 
fish and game. We have beautiful streams, valleys and hills, 
unsurpassed for recreation grounds. 

"Killing game and fish out of season and dynamiting our 
streams will not bring visitors to our state. For recreation the 
people of our own state will be forced to go to other states. 

"Public sentiment should be aroused. When the state of 
Missouri asks the sportsman to pay a five-dollar license fee to 
hunt, the sportsman is led to believe that the fish and game will 
be protected during the closed season. When the officials fail to 
do their sworn duty it places the state in the position of obtaining 
money from the sportsman under false pretences. 

"The sportsmen of the state are not paying hunting license 
fees for the politicians to create offices for no other purpose than 
to pay political debts and fill these offices with 'lame ducks' who 
have no other interest in their work than to draw their salaries. 

"The money that is paid the state today for hunters' licenses 
is for the sole purpose of fish and game propagation and protec- 
tion, and is paid only by those who wish to hunt and fish. It is 
not a general tax against all property. The Missouri legislature 
has on two occasions diverted this special fund to other purposes 
during political factional fights. 

"Game is killed out of season and is being sold, and the 
streams are dynamited for fish, all in direct violation of our laws. 
Very feeble efforts are being put forth, if any. by the Missouri 
Game Department to put a stop to infractions of the law. 

Pag*e fourteen 


' ' Game Laws Should Be Enforced. 

"The sportsmen of Missouri have a right to expect and de- 
mand that the officers entrusted with this work render the ser- 
vice for which they are being paid, and to that end appeal to the 
citizens of the state of Missouri, to all commercial organizations 
and societies of this state, in order that they may be brought face 
to face with the deplorable conditions that today exist. 

"The money raised from hunters' licenses should be used only 
for the work of the Fish and Game Department, and if incompe- 
tents fill these offices they should be removed and their places 
given to men who can render service to the state in keeping with 
the cost to the state for their services. 

"Juggling the Game Fund. 

"It is a notorious fact that $45,000 Avas paid into Missouri 
state funds to protect fish and game, but this money was used 
for other purposes. 

"On two occasions, as above mentioned, the legislature has 
diverted the game fund to the general revenue and refused to 
make the necessary appropriation to the Game Department, doing 
serious damage throughout the state on account of the work of 
the department coming to a standstill, as no funds were available 
to carry on the work and keep deputies in the field. The market- 
hunters could shoot after sundown without hindrance, either in 
open or closed season; the fish-trappers could run their nets, set 
traps or dynamite the stream at will." 


Mr. F. H. Fawcett, Deputy Game Warden of Harney and 
Malheur counties, sends the following notes from his locality : 

On October 22 Frank Triska and C. P. Kuhl while hunting 
on the head of Riddle creek about twelve miles southeast of the 
little town of Diamond killed a very large buck mule deer. To 
quote Mr. Fawcett : ' ' The horns, which are freaks, are about 
twenty-four inches in length, with a spread of about twenty-six 
inches at the back tips, and thirty-four inches at the middle tips. 
There are eighteen points on each horn." 

Pag-e fifteen 


They had no way of weighing the- animal, but Mr. Fawcett 
estimated it would dress 300 pounds or more. 

On October 26 while Mr. Faweett was on Mirandi ranch near 
Andrews he found the remains of a two-year-old deer that, in 
attempting to jump a barbed wire fence had caught its hind legs 
between the top and second wire in such a way that it was unable 
to free itself. From the appearance of the hide and bones the 
accident happened during the early part of the summer. 


Deputy Game Warden Ben S. Patton of Estacada reports a 
small band of elk living on the southeast slope of Mt. Hood. 

Hunters and trappers on the headwaters of the Clackamas 
river reported an unusually large number of fawns this year. 
This is probably due to the fact that seven wolves, three cougar, 
one hundred and one bobcats and a large number of coyotes were 
killed in that county during the past year. These "varmints" 
no doubt kill many fawns. 


One of the most flagrant violations of the deer law has been 
stopped in Curry county by the arrest of a gang of five violators 
during the first week in December. The head of the gang was 
George Fischer, formerly of Brownsville. For many years 
Fischer has been the manager of the Brownsville glove factory. 
During all this time he has been a constant violator of the game 
laws of this state. He has several times before been arrested and 
fined. He has always been exceedingly defiant as far as game 
laws and game wardens are concerned. He carried one case to 
the Supreme Court of the state. 

Last September he moved his glove outfit to Gold Beach and 
from there shipped it to the William Clarno homestead near the 
headwaters of the Pistol river. County Commissioner Colgrove 
and several other residents of Curry county knew that the laws 
were being violated and so a posse was organized and with the 
assistance of Game Wardens John Adams and William Powell, 
the entire gang was rounded up and taken to Gold Beach for 

Page sixteen 


trial. A large number of deer hides were found in camp and 
there was evidence to show that several hundred deer had been 
killed. William Golden, one of the gang, turned state's evidence 
and was not prosecuted. George Fischer was fined $300 and 
sentenced to sixty days in jail. Clifford Fischer was fined $150. 
J. J. Van Norwick and M. F. Robinson both pled guilty and were 
fined $50 each. 

District Attorney Meredith writes that the men have not 
paid their fines and Curry county is now using the violators to 
advance the good roads movement. 


Each year complaints are filed with the Game Commissions 
of Oregon and California concerning the damage wild geese are 
doing to crops. Last spring some of these complaints coming 
from northern California were investigated by George Neale, 
Assistant Commissioner. His report is in part as follows : 

" These reports — so often in evidence about this season — do 
not come altogether from the farmer or rice grower, but from the 
market hunters, who, when the time comes for the arrival of the 
geese on their way from the northern nesting grounds, display 
a sudden interest in the welfare of the farmer and the rice 
grower. The amount of damage done to young grain by wild 
geese depends upon the stage of growth. Should the grain be 
sufficiently strong to resist the geese and they are unable to 
pull out the kernel, in that event the geese nip off the tops of 
the young grain only, which aids or promotes the growth, and, 
as the farmer himself says, makes it stool out heavier. However, 
should the grain be just showing above the ground, the geese may 
destroy the grain by pulling out and eating the seed. Most of 
the grain found in the stomachs of geese is eaten in stubble fields 
after harvest. Every flock of geese that is seen in growing grain 
is said to be eating such grain, when, as a matter of fact, an 
examination of the food so eaten will disclose that the geese are 
feeding upon a noxious grass, the name of which I do not know, 
except by the name of "goose grass." It has a seed rich/ in oil 
and is very fattening, sheep doing exceedingly well upon this 
feed. It is this food that gives the strong odor to geese at this 

Fag*e seventeen 



Volume I. 



Aiming at the Mark 1 

Chinese Pheasant Record 3 

Deer, Later Season 3 

Elk. Yearling. Illustration. . .Cover 

Game Law, Error in Abstract. ... 2 

Licenses Issued 1912 8 

Look Out for the Horns 3 

Notes 3 

Notes from Counties 4 

Benton, Clackamas, Curry, Doug- 
las, Harney, Josephine, Jackson, 
Lake, Lane, Linn, Tillamook, 
Lincoln, Union, Wallowa. 

Season, Later on Deer 3 

Sportsmen Organizing 2 

OCTOBER, 1913. 

Bounties on Predatory Animals. . 6 

Chinese Pheasants, Open Season. . 1 
Duck, Pintail. Illustration.. . .Cover 

Federal Game Law, New 1 

Fish, Undersized 5 

Fishing on Upper Willamette. .... 6 

Federal Law for Migratory Birds. 9 

Night Hunting Unlawful 3 

Notice to Trappers and Taxider- 
mists 3 

Notes from Counties 7 

Clatsop, Clackamas, Douglas, 
Jackson, Lake, Lane, Linn. 
Tillamook, Union, Wallowa. 

October Fishing 4 

Predatory Animals. Bounties. ... 6 
Season, Open on Chinese Pheas- 
ants 1 

Trappers and Taxidermists, No- 
tice to 3 

NOVEMBER, 1913. 

Anglers, Attention 4 

Antelope in Southern Oregon. ... S 
Bobcat or Lynx. Illustration . . Cover 

Chinese Pheasant Law 2 

Convention of Sportsmen 4 

Hunting Accidents 9 

Manslaughter 1 

Notes from Counties 12 

Baker. Benton, Clackamas, Clat- 
sop, Douglas. Harney, Jackson, 
Josephine, Klamath, Lake. Lane, 
Linn, Marion, Morrow, Multno- 

Pag-e eighteen 

mah, Polk, Umatilla, Union, 
Wallowa, Washington. 

Pheasant Attends Court 8 

Riddle Rod and Gun Club 10 

Reeves Pheasant, Nest of 11 

Refuges for Wild Birds and Ani- 
mals .*) 

Salmon Club to be Organized. ... 3 

DECEMBER, 1913. 

Another Hunter Killed 3 

Duck Shooting Along Columbia. . . 2 

Fishing Trips, Short Winter 8 

Laws Governing Season on Game 

Fish 6 

Licenses, Trapping 11 

Migratory Birds, Open Season; 

Zone Map 10 

Notes from Counties 13 

Baker, Benton, Douglas, Har- 
ney, Josephine, Jackson, Lin- 
coln, Lake, Linn, Lane, Multno- 
mah, Wallowa, Washington. 
Rivers and Streams of Oregon. . . 4 

Sportsmanship, Spirit of 1 

Seasons on Game Fish, Law 6 

Season, Open for Migratory Birds, 

Zone Map 10 

Shore Bird Season ] 2 

Shooting for Charity 12 

Sportsmen Interested in State 

Convention 13 

Trapping Licenses 11 

Where to Fish in December 7 

Western Willet. Illustration. .Cover 

Volume II. 
JANUARY, 1914. 

Deschutes River Law 2 

Duck Season 12 

Hungarian Partridge, Introduc- 
tion of 3 

x.otes from Counties 14 

Baker, Benton, Clackamas, Clat- 
sop, Crook, Douglas, Harney, 
Jackson, Marion, Multnomah, 
Polk, Union, Wallowa, Yamhill. 

Pollution of our Streams 1 

Quail, Bobwhite 7 

Quail on Hand. Illustration. . .Cover 
Quail, Trapping and Distributing 10 

Rivers and Streams — Part 2 4 

Season, Duck 12 



Shipping Game 13 

Silverton and her Sewage System 1 


Arrests 17 

Convictions 17 

Coon, Young. Illustration ... .Cover 

Fish, Distribution of 13 

Game Protection Fund 1 

Game Birds Liberated 5 

Licenses, Eeport of 16 

Quail, Eearing of 16 

Eivers and Streams — Part 3 6 

State Convention 15 


Alien Gun Law 1 

Fishing, Winter 10 

Game Protective Association.... 9 
Grouse, Euffed. 4 Illustrations. . 3 

Law, Why Enforced 1 

Notes from Counties 14 

Baker, Clackamas, Clatsop, 
Douglas, Josephine. Lake, 
Multnomah, Union, Umatilla, 

Eivers and Streams — Part 1 11 

Euffed Grouse. Illustration. . .Cover 
United States Supreme Court De- 
cision 2 


Anglers ' Outlook 6 

Another Case of Manslaughter. . 4 
Anglers' Club, Annual Meeting.. 6 

Bear. Black 8 

Biological Survey 13 

Clackamas County Viewpoint. ... 11 
Fishing in Government Canal. ... 17 

Gull. Illustration Cover 

Game, or Graft 1 

Locking the Barn Door 3 

Multnomah Anglers ' Club 6 

Notes from Counties 18 

Curry, Crook, Jackson, Klam- 
atn. Lake, Lane, Lincoln, Linn, 
Multnomah, Union, Wallowa. 
Planks for a Sportsman's Plat- 
form 21 

Eivers and Streams — Part 5 9 

Sportsmen's League. Illustrated. 5 

Sportsmen's Organizations 15 

Tournament 7 


Anglers — Good Sport 17 

Beaver, Studying Habits 6 


Brook Trout, Eastern 4 

Chinese Pheasant Mother. Illus- 
tration Cover 

Duck Shooting 5 

Deschutes, Winter Fishing 3 

Fishing, Salmon. 1 Illustration.. 1 

Fishing Fever 1 

Fishing, Winter 3 

Federal Work, Funds 3 

Hunters May Go to Penitentiary 2 

Human Nature 6 

Notes from Counties 18 

Clackamas, Grant, Harney, 
Jackson, Klamath, Lake, Lane, 
Linn, Multnomah, Umatilla, 

Eivers and Streams — Part 6 11 

Salmon Fishing. Illustrated 1 

Salmon Club 14 

Salmon Club By-Laws 15 

Trout, Eastern Brook 4 

Wolf, Timber 7 

Willamette Falls Illustration .... 6 


Animals, Predatory 19 

Animals, Fur Bearing, Eeport .... 20 

Bird Homes, Eobber of 4 

Birds, Greatest Enemy of 2 

Cougar 3 

Cougar Fight with Deer 4 

Cougar and Timber Wolf 17 

Cat with Eobin. Illustration. .Cover 

Deer, Fight with Cougar 4 

Hawks 5 

Notes by the Way 16 

Pheasant Farming. 3 Illustrations 6 

Pheasants, Chinese 15 

Predatory Animals, Bounty 19 

Eivers and Streams — Part 7 12 

Sportsmen's Organizations 18 

Sportsman's Catechism 21 

Wolf, Timber 17 


Antelope. Illustration Cover 

Bobcat Killed by Wolf 9 

Boy and Gun 25 

Brownsville Eod and Gun Club. 

Illustrated 9 

Notes from Counties 21 

Baker, Benton, Clackamas, Clat- 
sop, Coos, Crook, Curry, Doug- 
las, Lane, Harney, Wasco. 
Pheasants, Eaising Young. 3 Il- 
lustrations 10 

Pag*e nineteen 



Partridge, Hungarian 3 

Partridge, Hungarian. Colored Il- 
lustration 2 

Rivers and Streams — Part 8 17 

Salmon, Chinook Eecord 9 

Seasons, Closed 15 

Trout, Fingerling 6 

Wardens, Deputy Game 15 

Wolf Trapped 16 


Accidental Shooting 2 

Anglers 7 Casting Tournament . . . 10 

Angling Eecord 20 

Deer, Black-tailed. Illustration. Cover 

Deer, Open Season 3 

Deer, White-tailed. 3 Illustrations 5 

Handicap, 9th Pacific 9 

Penitentiary Awaits Him 1 

Pheasant Chicks. Illustrated ... 4 

Rivers and Streams — Part 9 16 

Season, Open on Deer 3 

Stocking Mountain Lakes. 2 Il- 
lustrations 11 

Sportsmen's Banquet 20 

Warning 2] 


Bobcat Bounty 5 

Denny, Judge 0. N 11 

Federal Regulations, New 4 

Federal Inspector Appointed. ... 5 

Game, Menace to 1 

Game Refuge 20 

Laws, State and Federal 12 

Menace to Forests and Game 1 

Pheasant, Chinese 20 

Pigeon, Band-tailed. Illustration 


Pigeon, Band-tailed, Notes 13 

Pigeon, Passenger 3 

Quail, Varieties. Illustrated 9 

Salmon, Feeding Fingerling 6 

State and Federal Law 12 

Stocking Mountain Lakes. 2 Il- 
lustrations 14 

Season, Closed Hunting 12 

Season, Closed on Quail and 

Pheasants 5 


Bobcat Treed by Coyotes 20 

Baldpate. Illustration Cover 

Cat Problem 4 

Conditions, Winter Game 15 

Deer in Umatilla County 20 

Dove. Game Bird? 3 

Elk 19, 20 

Page twenty 


Fish, Do They Suffer Pain? 17 

Game Birds, Reports on Liberated 18 

Owls, Burrowing 13 

Partridges, Hungarian 19 

Pheasants, Chinese. Colored Il- 
lustration 2 

Rice, Wild 19 

Steens Mountains Conditions. .... 15 
Season, Time Table of Hunting. . 14 
Season, Open on Chinese Pheas- 
ants 20 

Sportsmen 's Organizations 12 

Trout, Black Spotted 5 

Widgeon. Illustration Cover 

What Are You Doing to Help?.. 21 

Bear Cub, Black. Illustration. . Cover 
Birds and Insect Pests. Illustrated 10 
Bear Caught with Crawfish Bait. 19 

Bounty Law 1 

Game Protection, Effective 2 

Game Conditions About Ashland. 18 

Klamath County Notes 20 

Menace, A 21 

Pheasants, Late Broods 20 

Partridges and Quail, Report. ... 14 

Pelage, Variations 9 

Quail, Report 14 

Quail, Late Broods 20 

Refuge, Wild Life 17 

Shrew 15 

Trout, Closed Season 20 

Trout, Record Rainbow 20 

Wolves, Trapping 4 


California Fish and Game 2 

Cougar Bounties in California... 3 

County Associations Meet 10 

Deer Slayers Brought to Justice 16 

Does, Protect the 21 

Economic Value of Wild Birds. . . 5 

Elk in Lane County 11 

Game, Value to State 12 

Game Conditions, Upper Clacka- 
mas 16 

Geese and Grain Crops, Wild. ... 17 
Goose, Hutchins. Illustration. .Cover 

Importation of New Species 1 

Notes, Western Lane County 4 

Notes, Southeastern Oregon 15 

Sportsmen 's League 8 

Sportsmen Meet at La Grande ... 11 
Trout, Eastern Brook, Linn Co. . . 4 
Trout, Eastern Brook, Linn 
Countv 4 

Protect the Does 


do some hunters want to change the present deer 
law so they can legalize the killing of does? Is it 
because they are not so wild and are easier killed? 

Deer are gregarious and polygamous. One buck 
will attend to a moderate sized herd of does. 


kill the female deer when she may have fawns 
this year and next? 

The true sportsman wants an annual open season 
and a moderate bag limit. He doesn't want to kill 
now at the expense of the future and deprive his 
children of all such sport. 


This law is the best safeguard in the woods. A 
hunter who waits to distinguish between a buck and 
a doe, will not be guilty of murdering his friend or 


3 2044 106 226 160 



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